Explore A Bright Future For Your Child – Top Careers In 2020

As another year of rapid change passes and the shadow of recession lifts slowly, a slew of new careers are waiting to be explored in the new decade. How is it going to unfold for your children who will stand at important crossroads in 2020? What kind of career options will they have? As we grow into an information-driven society and technology advances, Generation 2020 will find itself caught in a brain race. The youth of the future are likely to consider becoming space architects or genetic counsellors, careers that we can only dream of at this point in time.

Let’s take a look at some careers of the future.

1. Healthcare:
Healthcare involves the diagnoses, treatment and care of people, whether newly born, terminally ill or the elderly. The scope of this field has remarkably evolved over the last few years due to increasing investments, growing hospital chains, changing lifestyles and longer life spans. Apart from the traditional areas of medical practice (physicians, dentists, ophthalmologists, cardiologists etc.), careers such as hospital administrators, health technologists and technicians and medical research will see a surge in the long term. Nursing as a profession, will also evolve owing especially to rising numbers of the aged population striving for a better life. The latest additions to the series of upcoming careers in this field are those in brain analysis and genetic counselling.    

2. Wealth-care:
Though the finance sector was badly hit by the recession, the clouds have slowly begun to shift and make way for new vistas. People’s earnings are on the rise and so is their willingness to take risks with their money. That being the case, there is a need for professionals who understand, explain, save and multiply people’s money for them. This opens up doors to careers in financial/investment advisory, risk management, wealth management, and corporate finance.

3. Engineering
With boundless innovation in technology, careers unheard of until now are being touted as options for the new generation. Move over computers and telecommunication engineers, your children will specialise in fields such as robotics, teleportation, simulation and space tourism.

4. Education:
Education is another field where investments are pouring in. Also, it is gradually taking a global as well as commercial avatar. As more foreign universities collaborate with Indian educational institutes and organisations, the latter have begun to move towards organised recruitments. Apart from the traditional positions such as chancellors and vice-chancellors, positions such as CEO and COO are also making way into the system.

As teaching methods continue to reform, the ‘e’ word has already made its way into teaching methods. Thus educational content developers will gain increasing importance in the years to come.

5. IT:
An intelligent network has become a necessity for any setup. Therefore web and system analysts, designers and developers will continue to remain in demand and will be required to undertake increasingly complex profiles. So will software designers and developers, web consultants and information mangers. Also, parallel programming is a relatively new career, likely to become popular in the years to come.  

6. Green Jobs:
The pressure of demand on depleting resources is only likely to increase manifold in the future. In such a scenario, we will need people who can come to our rescue; people who specialise in ‘resource recycling’ and ‘intelligent infrastructure’. So when your children grow up, you may see them working on jobs involving renewable energy, biogas, solar and wind power systems, environmental products and services and so on. Other areas include research and development, manufacturing, consulting, energy generation, energy efficient buildings and construction and project design and implementation. Sustainable environment-related fields are expected to lure future job seekers in huge proportions, akin to what IT did a decade ago.

7. Biotechnology Jobs:
Another sector likely to see high growth is biotechnology, which will also create several jobs in the fields of manufacturing, sales, research, development and so on. Careers options in this area include drug discovery, cell therapy and tissue engineering, bioinformatics, clinical research, intellectual property, bioanalytical chemistry, plant engineering etc.  

8. Agriculture and other Agro-based careers:
Despite making progress in several sectors, agriculture continues to be an important source of income in India. The advent of agricultural technology is expected to foster growth in agriculture and other agro-based sectors. There is and will continue to be ample scope for making successful careers in floriculture, spices processing, pharmaceutics, dairy, fruit and vegetable, meat and fish and other food processing sectors. Also, several job seekers are expected to opt for the relatively less explored organic food and beverages industry.

9. Nanotechnology:
Nanotechnology is fast becoming popular and offers plenty of career options in fields as varied as medicine, engineering, cosmetics, computer hardware and software, robotics, defence, research and development and so on.

10. Other Opportunities:
a) Experimental Petrologist: These are people who study the evolution and formation of rocks on other planets.  
b) Realiser: A realiser creates real versions of virtual objects.

c) Weather Modification Police: These people supervise over those who produce iodine induced rainfall from passing clouds. They are responsible for controlling the iodine quantities used for weather modification.
d) Unplugger: This is a mental health professional responsible to help wean people from excess technology dependence.

These are the promises that the future holds for today’s children. It seems like a difficult path to tread, but then it always is and cannot be any different. One thing is for sure though, given the immense scope for exploring a wide array of career choices, providing your child the space for self exploration is imperative.

Also your child’s future education and success depends on how well you plan today.
Be prepared and everything will fall into place. One such device that can help you get started is the Aviva Educost, which enables you to calculate the cost of future education and know the amount you would need to invest today for achieving required corpus.

College Applications: Extracurricular Activities

Applying to college is as stressful for the parents as it is for the students. It is a long process but the most important aspects of an application require work throughout the entire four years of high school. College admission committees review your academic work and extracurricular activities from ninth grade through the first semester of your senior year. Therefore, it is important to do your best or try to improve over the years so that colleges can get a good idea how you would perform at their university. 

Participation in after-school clubs, team sports, and volunteer organizations are all great ways to spend your extra time during high school. The most important thing is to do something because you enjoy it. You do not want to do something simply because it will look good on a college application, even though many people are motivated solely because of this fact. If you love football, play football! Your parents may have to stock up on the medical supplies to deal with all your bumps and bruises, but at least you will be having fun and learning how important teamwork is.

Volunteering always looks great on a college application. If you are possibly interested in medicine, you should try to volunteer at a hospital or health clinic. Help the nurses and care workers with serving the patients, getting medical equipment supplies, and spending time with the patients. It will help you determine if this industry is something in which you are actually interested in pursuing! If you enjoy working with children, you can always volunteer at your local library for an after-school tutoring program or at a daycare center on the weekends.

In addition to or in lieu of after-school sports, you might want to have an after-school job. Not only will it help you earn extra money that you can save up to pay for college, it will also give you important real-world experience. Even if you are just working at an ice cream shop, you still learn how to make correct change, deal with customers, and interact with a boss.

Whether you decide to volunteer at a hospital and learn about durable medical equipment or you want to make some extra money by scooping ice cream instead, both activities will demonstrate that you are an individual with drive and motivation. Good luck on your college applications!

A first curriculum development experience in a technical college

It started nine years ago.  I was hired as an adjunct instructor to teach a single class.  I had a small step up on any other adjunct that could have been hired; I had taken the class years previously.  During my studies, I thought that the class was poorly organized and documents were not cohesive.  I was given the start and end dates of the course, the title of the course and the course description – and that was all.  I was instructed to create the curriculum around the course title and description.  The first request was to develop a syllabus for the course, so off to the internet I went.

The first realization, some syllabi are good – the majority are not.

The basics were givens and the text book was more a reference book required for the information – not for assignments.  The major first was the objectives, competencies, goals, outcomes – each school refers to them as a different term.  I was not trained in education, rather in the technical field of architecture.  I researched the internet, reading multiple syllabi, anything I could get my hands on.

As I sorted through the data, I eventually created THE BEST objectives (or so I thought – more later).  I then started on creating the assignments, activities, jobs – again so many different terms.  The last thing that I did was write the midterm and final exams.

The second realization, limitations.  A course that is 12 weeks long can only accommodate so much work.  What to teach verses what to leave up to the students.  I laid out a course that had 58 lectures and 2 test days.  I was soon to learn that although this is not an impossible task it is certainly a lot of work on an instructor.  I soon learned that perfect or even close to perfect attendance in a course is not to be expected, as there are so many outside distractions – student government meetings, college defined projects, interviews etc.

I had designed the course to include so much work which required immediate feedback from me, which I spent more hours correcting work than actually preparing what I had set out to teach.  The result – overworked students and an overworked instructor.  I was grading the equivalent of 24 students x 12 jobs x 2 tests each, 576 items over 60 days.  Each job was a minimum of 30 minutes to assess, as all my comments were written.  The math is not pretty.

The second time I taught the course, I had so much more knowledge and I fixed the assignments to put more onus on the students, less on the instructor.  I added review dates into the curriculum, instead of taking all the work home to grade and placed a review date prior to the midterm and final exam.  Now I was teaching 46 lectures, 10 in class reviews, 2 exam review dates, 2 exam dates. There was a downfall to the review dates; I was having trouble getting through all 24 students in a single 3 hour class.

And now I was not satisfying all the objectives I had set out to teach, I lost 10 teaching days.  How to fix this?

As I taught the course, I was much more pleased with the results.  However, the students were not using the reference book as often as I would like and the projects were more general than specific.  I attributed this to the very broad goals that I had put in place this time through the course.  And I was still grading at home.  I spent many hours contemplating solutions.

I was hired on as a full time instructor, with two more classes to teach.  A solution had to be in sight – this much work for 3 classes, I couldn’t imagine enough hours in the day.

But the third time is the charm, right?  I created 10 homework assignments for the students which came directly out of the reference book- forgetting that I would now have to grade them.  I also created a “work day” following the midterm, so I could grade the midterms in class, but be available to answer any questions – instead I spent the three hours answering questions, not grading.  This was ultimately a failure.  I also split the review dates over two days in class, not one.

I also re-wrote the objectives one more time, this time having done more research on objectives verses goals I determined that I was ultimately teaching the students skills.  The word on the internet was competency.  At the end of the course, are the students competent in the skills being taught?  This was a defining moment.

Although I spent time grading their 10 homework assignments, I had created a course which had a defined set of skills to teach the students, each assignment aligned with at least one competency.  By the end of the quarter, all the competencies would be satisfied, because all the assignments were tied to the success of the students mastering a skill.  I was now teaching 31 lectures, 2 exam review dates, 22 in class reviews, 2 exams, 1 work day and 2 days set aside for “no lectures.”  I was a bit disenchanted with the concept that in a 60 day course, I was only teaching a little more than 50% of the time.  Was this really teaching?

It was, but now I was facilitating the students learning, not dictating it.  Finally 90% success.  There were a few areas that I still felt needed attention.  I was still working out the concept of weighted grades verses a point system.  I was still grading 240 homework assignments at home.

It wasn’t until a few years later that I found the solution to the 10 homework assignments.  I currently require the assignments to be completed by the start of a class and the students receive points based on the level of completeness of the assignment.  I use the first 10 minutes of the course to have the students come to my review area and show me their homework, in which they receive the equivalent of 2, 1 or 0 points- 100% complete, at least 50% complete or less than 50% complete.  We then take time from the course to discuss their answers.  They are not punished for their learning; they are allowed to make a mistake, fix it and then apply it to their project which will satisfy a competency.

Ultimately I switched from a weighted grade system to a point system.  I used 1000 points, as it has huge impact on the students when they realize that their final exam is 300 points, versus 30% of their grade.

In the end, the course included 28 lectures, 3 (10 cumulative at 1 hour) homework reviews, 22 in class review days, 2 exams, 2 exam review days (which I still grade at home), and 3 days set aside for no lectures.  I was only grading two exams at home, 48 exams total.  The feedback was immediate and given in the in class reviews.

I went back to school and received a degree in Career and Technical Education, where I learned many more concepts specific to this individualized teaching environment.

The course has undergone many changes as technology changes and as I grow as an instructor. A major change to note is that the final exam has been replaced by the students’ presentation of their project, which takes 4 total days to present.  This reduces the lectures to 26 and the number of tests that I am grading at home to 24.  In all, there are 18 competencies defined for this course, 10 labs and 10 homework assignments.  I must make sure that my lectures are equipped with the pertinent information the students require to learn their 18 skills.

In the start, I worked to serve my students.  In the middle, I worked to serve me.  In the end, I serve my students, myself, the future employers of my students and my college.  I have received two teaching awards from my college: the Dean’s Award for Excellence in Teaching and the President’s Award for Excellence in Teaching.

Heading into my tenth year of my teaching, I have learned that it takes time to develop a course and an instructor to the level students are expecting.  I share my experiences with new instructors as often as possible, knowing that they will have to learn these lessons on their own.

Distance Education in India is Advantage

The education and the career options in India have been growing with the increasing demand of the people in different professions. The colleges of India have come up with different courses, which fulfil the demands of the industry and teach the students with the required skills. The students are required to be instilled with the basic skills, from the graduation level itself, so that they do justice with their profession and at their post graduation level they know the basics of the subject and are aware of the subject and its topics. Earlier the professional courses were available only at the post graduate level, but now with the change in time and according to the need of the hour, many professional courses in fields like management, computer sciences, communications, etc. are available at the graduation level also.India is home to a good number of higher educational institutions, which include colleges, universities, open universities as well as professional training centers. There are also many institutes in India that offer PG Courses through Distance Education. Since many individuals in the country cannot afford a regular classroom course. or do not have access to a nearby college or university, that’s why they enroll for UG or PG degree or diploma courses through the distance learning mode.

Many working professionals who want to upgrade their qualifications also enroll for various PG Courses through distance education as this offers them the flexibility to study and work simultaneously.

Institutes Offering PG Courses through Distance Education as mentioned below :

( Distance Learning / Correspondence Courses )



BA Tamil/ History / English / Hindi/ Music / Malayalam

B.Com./B.Com with Computer Application

BBA/ BCA / B.Lit. Tamil

B.C.A. (Lateral Entry)

B.Sc.: Maths / psychology/ Hotel Management and Catering Science/Yoga & Naturopathy

MA: History/ Public Administration/ Economics/ Criminology and Police Science / Sociology / Political Science/Dravidian Studies / Journalism

MA: English,Hindi

M.Com./M.Com. with Computer Application*

M.Sc: Maths/ Physics/ Chemistry

M.Sc: Environmental Studies/ Yoga & Naturopathy

M.Sc: Software Technology and Management/ Networking and Information Technology



Contact Person -  Ms Neetu – 9212441844 , 011-65100006

( Admission Open – 2011 session )


College Student Credit Cards: Responsibility is Key

During these trying economic times, college students across the country are seeking credit cards that offer low interest rates, no annual fees, and valuable rewards that can be earned and used within a short period of time. At a time when everyone’s nerves are frayed because of uncertainty in the stock market, illiquidity in the credit market and the softening real estate market, one thing remains constant – the importance of building and maintaining a strong credit history. Student credit cards are tailored to help students with limited credit histories do just that. Visit www.goodstudentcreditcard.com for a list of some of the best credit cards for student applicants issued by Discover, Chase and Capital One.


Student applicants should understand that responsible credit card use can lead to a lifetime of low-interest rate loan opportunities. The operative word is “responsible” — if you can’t afford to buy it, you should consider saving up until you can. Stated bluntly, unless you have cash in your wallet to cover your credit card charges, you should do your best to exercise restraint. Credit cards are most beneficial to students who can afford to pay their balance in full every month. It is important to understand that credit card companies profit from compounding interest on unpaid credit card balances. If students use their credit cards and pay only the minimum balance every month, the probability is extremely high that they will quickly fall into the debt trap presently affecting so many Americans. It is a hole that is very hard to dig out of.


In these tough economic times, where credit is getting more difficult to come by, it is important to create a strong credit profile by establishing credit early and maintaining a consistent payment history. Student credit card applications can be completed online in a few short minutes. Just visit www.studentreditcardoffersonline.com to apply.









News Paper Reading Habit Among the Professional College Staff Members for Various Points of View: a Survey


News papers have collected information from all directions. It helps to improve reading habit, knowledge skills and current awareness about world. Most of the people wish they read more. It is an activity that is both fun and enlightening. It can help us be more knowledgeable and successful. However, it is an activity that many people don’t engage in very much. According to the 1999 National Household Education Survey, 50% of the U.S. population aged 25 and over read a newspaper at least once a week, read one or more magazines regularly, and had read a book in the past 6 months. What does this mean? It means that 50% of the population hasn’t read a book in the last six months! And most of the staff members read the news papers for various purposes it’s clearly defined this article. So now a day news papers reading habit important for all the staff members because more information’s exist and to identify the latest development in their subject or field.


Begum and Ramesh (1991) investigated the Factors inhibiting the public library use; A case study of city central library, Mysore. This article “Factors inhibiting the public library use” analyzed the responses gathered from the users of the City central library, Mysore, India. Assesses the reading interests, factors inimical to the use of City central library, availability of reading materials and the necessary improvements suggested by the users to the existing conditions of City central library ., Mysore.

Somsong(1999), Reading habit promotion in ASEAN libraries. This paper described the different activities that ASEAN Libraries had undertaken to promote reading by increasing awareness among their people. Firstly, factors limiting reading habit in ASEAN Libraries had been approached. Secondly roles of local institutes or organizations in helping libraries conducting reading habit promotion had been acknowledged. Finally some suggestions on effective methods and successful programs of reading habit promotion by ASEAN Libraries had been collected

Bndaka(2007) investigated the using newspaper articles to develop students’ Reading skills in senior high school that the aim of this paper is to present a reading lesson which was initially designed for the students of Peiramatiko Senior High School (Experimental Senior High School) of Patras, Greece and more specifically for class A of Senior High School. The main aim of the lesson was to develop the students’ reading skills using a newspaper article and help student’s gain confidence when faced with authentic texts. The planning of the lesson was based on the belief that students should be exposed as much as possible to authentic reading texts so that they are given the chance to encounter real language and not only the language made up of course books


This topic deals with the content and the meaning of the undertaking study in terms of objectives and process of analyzing the formation of hypothesis. It also explains the methodology of study with respect to sampling from interview schedule, sources of data, method of data analysis and limitation of study.


The main aim of the study is to analyze the News paper reading habit among the professional college staff members for various points of view: A survey. The following are the subsequent objectives:

1. To study the socio economic conditions of professional college staff members.

2. To study the news reading habit among the professional college staff communities.

3. To observed the professional college staff members read the news paper for various purpose

4. To make suggestions for the effective reading of news papers in the professional college staff community.


For realizing the objectives of any study data, it is required and in turn, for the collection of data, a field is selected to realize the objectives of the study to collect data required for the purpose, the researcher choose News paper reading habit among the professional college staff members for various points of view: A survey

Method of data collection

For collecting the data the researcher has prepared interview schedule for the users and distributed to them. The empirical research design and random sampling technique was applied to select the sample.110 questioners were distributed to the sample and 105 were received back. Out of the 105 samples taken from professional college staff members in Einstein college of Engineering, Tirunelveli District, Tamil Nadu. 11 samples were from professor and 24 samples were from Asst. professor. 39 samples were from lecturer, 28 samples were from Non teaching staff and 3 samples were from others staff community.

Data Analysis

The collected data were entered in the master table and sub-tables were created. The statistical tools like average and weighted percentage have been used.




Distribution of professional college staff community according to Sex.

S.No Occupation Male Female Total

1 Professor 6



(45.5) 11


2 Asst. Professor 14

(58.3) 10




3 Lecturer 31



(20.5) 39


4 Non teaching staff 22



(21.4) 28


5 Others 2



(33.3) 3


Total 75

(71.4) 30

(28.6) 105


Note: * Source computed

** Entries within parenthesis denote percentage

The data in table 1 indicate the distribution of professional college staff members according to sex. Out of all the respondents, 71.4 percent are male followed by Female (28.6).

Among all the professional staff members, more than 75 percent of the respondents from male are seen in Lecturer (79.5) and Non teaching (78.6) staff communities and more female respondents are seen in Professor (45.5) and Asst. Professor (41.7) staff communities.

It is clearly seen from the above discussion that the more than 75 percent of male staff members in lecturer and Non teaching staff are reading the news paper then female.


Distribution of professional college staff community according to their occupation wise.

S.No Occupation No. of Response No response

1 Professor 11(10.5) -

2 Asst. Professor 24(22.8) -

3 Lecturer 39(37.1) -

4 Non teaching staff 28(26.7) -

5 Others 3(2.9) -

Total 105(100) -

Note: * Source computed

** Entries within parenthesis denote percentage

The data in table 2 indicate the distribution of professional college staff according to their occupation wise. Out of all the respondents, Most of the respondents are lecturers (37.1) and followed by the non teaching staff (26.7), Asst. Professor (22.8), Professor (10.5) and few respondents (2.9) are others staff member



Distribution of professional college staff members according to the habit of reading news papers.


Professional college staff Habit of reading news papers


Yes No

1 Professor 7

(63.6) 4

(36.4) 11


2 Asst..Professor 19

(79.2) 5

(20.8) 24


3 Lecturer 30

(76.9) 9

(23.1) 39


4 Non teaching staff 26

(92.8) 2

(7.2) 28


5 Others 1

(33.3) 2

(66.7) 3


Total 83

(79.0) 22

(21.0) 105


Note: * Source computed

** Entries within parenthesis denote percentage

The data in table 3 indicate the distribution of professional college staff members according to the habit of reading news papers. Out of all the total respondents, 79.0 percent are having the habit of reading news papers and (21.0) respondents do not have the habit of reading news papers.

Among all the professional college staff members , majority of respondents are from non teaching staff who are having the habit of reading news papers followed by Asst.Professor (79.2), and Professor (63.6). More respondents from others (66.2) do not have the habit of reading news papers.


S.No Frequency Response Percentage

1 Daily 35 33.3

2 Twice or Thrice per week 31 29.5

3 Once in a week 22 21.0

4 Very rarely 17 16.2

5 Never 0 0.0

Total 105 100

Distribution of professional course staff members according to frequency of reading news papers

Source: computed

The data in table 4 indicate the distribution of professional course staff members according to the frequency of reading news papers. Among all the total respondents, 33.3 percent are to read the news papers ‘daily’ and followed by the persons are Twice or thrice per week (29.5), once in a week (21.0), very rarely (16.2) and no one (0.0) never read the news papers.


Distribution of professional college staff community according to the reading habit of news papers from various points of view.

Professional college staff Reading News papers for various point of view


Main heading Important news Political news Employment

news Entertainment news

Professor 2

(28.6) 2

(8.6) 2

(28.6) 1

(14.2) 0

(0.0) 7


Asst..Professor 5

(26.3) 4

(21.1) 0

(0.0) 10

(52.6) 0

(0.0) 19


Lecturer 7

(23.3) 2

(6.7) 6

(20.0) 15

(50.0) 0

(0.0) 30


Non Teaching staff 0

(0.0) 0

(0.0) 2

(7.7) 16

(61.5) 8

(30.8) 26


Others 0

(0.0) 0

(0.0) 0

(0.0) 0

(0.0) 1

(10.0) 1


Total 14

(16.9) 8

(9.6) 10

(12.1) 42

(50.6) 9

(10.8) 83


Note: * Source computed

** Entries within parenthesis denote percentage

The data in table 4 indicate the distribution of professional college staff members from various points of view. Out of all the total respondents, 50.6 percent read news papers for employment news, followed by the Main headings (16.9), Political news (12.1), Entertainment (10.8) and important news (9.6).

Among all categories of the college staff members, more than half of respondents are lecturers (50.0), Ass. Professors (52.6) and Non teaching staff community read the news paper for employment news. Others staff community read entertainment news only. Few respondents who are professor (28.6) and Asst.Professor (26.3) read main headings and important news in the news papers.



The findings on distribution of professional college staff members according to sex revealed the following facts. The staff members from male read the news papers than female.


The findings on distribution of professional college staff members according to habit of reading news papers revealed following facts. More than 75 percent of the professional college staff members are having the habit of reading news papers. More Non teaching staff communities have the habit of reading news paper. More others group staff community do not have the habit of reading news paper.

The findings on distribution of professional college staff members according to frequency of reading news papers revealed following facts most of staff members read the news papers daily and twice or thrice per week. Some staff members read the news papers once in a week and very rarely.

The findings on distribution of professional college staff members according to the reading habit of news papers from various points of views revealed following facts. More than half of the staff members are Non teaching, Asst. professor and lecturer read the news papers for employment news purpose .Others staff community read only entertainment news from the news paper.


Most of the staff members have felt that news papers must be read completely but time is too short for them to read the news paper.


In order to maintain and raise the News paper reading habit among the professional college staff members for various points of view the following suggestions may be found useful.

1. To promote news paper reading habit among the others staff community in professional college.

2. Electronic news papers are more help to read all information very short period.

3. Online news papers may help to find out latest development in various field, employment news, and other important news.

4. Now day’s professional college staff members must read the news papers for improve their knowledge skills.

5. The educational institutions should motivate and give opportunity to the professional college staff members for read online news papers and improve their knowledge skills.

6. The following are some suggestions to help you strengthen your reading habit ways to find and make more time for reading, always have a book around, set a reading goal, keep a log, keep a list, turn off the television, listen when you can’t read, Join a reading group or book club, Join a reading group or book club, build your own strategy and drop everything read


In this study the researcher concluded that the staff members from male read the news papers than female. More than 75 percent of the professional college staff members are having the habit of reading news papers. More Non teaching staff communities have the habit of reading news paper. Majority of the staff members read the news papers for employment and entertainment news only.



Allen, Harrell.T. New methods in Social Science Research. New york: Praeger Publishers, 1978

Kothari, C.P. Research Methodology: Methods and Techniques. New Delhi: Wishwa prakashan, 1990.

Kumaresan, S.C and Swaminathan,S. Library science unleashed. Trichy: Rock City Publications, 2003


Begum, Khaiser Jahan and Ramesh, C.P. “Factors inhibiting the public library use: A case study of city central library, Mysore.” Library Review. (1991): 332-350.

Bertot,John Carlo, Mcclure, Charles R and Ryan ,Joe Statistics. “Performance Measures for Public Library Networked Services.” Library and Information Science Research.23 (3)2001:299-300

Bndaka ,Eleni. “Using newspaper articles to develop students’ Reading skills in senior high school”. The Reading Matrix 7 (1)(2007)

Somsong, Sangkaeo . “Reading habit promotion in ASEAN libraries.” 65th IFLA Council and General Conference Bangkok, Thailand. 28August1999.

Yilmaz ,Bülent. “Reading and library usage habits of the students whose mother tongue is Turkish in Vienna, Austria.”66thIFL council and General conference Jerusalem, Israel. (2000): 13-18.

College Degrees are Still Worth the Investment

With unemployment hovering at 9 percent and college costs outpacing inflation, there is growing doubt about whether a college degree is worth the investment. Yet studies show that over the long term, college graduates fare better than high school graduates in many facets of life, ranging from career satisfaction to parenting skills.

The most commonly cited advantage of attending college is its impact on income. For 2008, the median salary of bachelor’s degree recipients working full-time year-round was $55,700, compared with $33,800 for a high school graduate, according to Education Pays 2010, a new report released by the College Board, the nonprofit association that administers the SAT.

Over the course of a 30-year career, college graduates earn about $400,000 more than high school graduates, according to a study conducted by PayScale for Bloomberg Businessweek. Yet beyond earnings, college graduates also have higher job satisfaction. The College Board report shows that about 58 percent of college graduates and individuals with some college education were very satisfied with their jobs, compared with 50 percent of high school graduates.

“People have to keep in mind that a college degree should be looked at as an investment rather than an expense,” says John Rooney, co-author of Preparing for College: Practical Advice for Students and Their Families (Ferguson Publishing, 2010). “An automobile is an expense. It depreciates over time. A college degree is an investment. It pays off over time.”

In the labor market, college graduates have higher success in finding jobs and staying employed than high school graduates. In January 2011, the unemployment rate for individuals with a bachelor’s degree was 4.2 percent, while for high school graduates it was 9.4 percent, according to a U.S. Department of Labor report.

“The market is really getting tough,” says Steve Langerud, director of professional opportunities at DePauw University in Greencastle, Ind. “Attorneys are competing with people with bachelor’s degrees. The pool is a lot deeper. There are a lot of people who haven’t found jobs so they are applying for positions.”

In his State of the Union Address delivered on Jan. 25, President Obama said, “Over the next ten years, nearly half of all new jobs will require education that goes beyond a high school degree. And yet, as many as a quarter of our students aren’t even finishing high school.”

While many can find jobs without attending college, they will not be able to advance as easily in their careers without at least a bachelor’s degree, says Jim Charkins, an economics professor at California State University, San Bernardino.

“There’s a ceiling in many jobs you can’t go beyond without a four-year degree,” says Charkins, executive director of the California Council on Economic Education. “A lot of kids think, ‘I’m just going to go work for the Forest Service.’ Then they get there and they say, ‘I want to make a lot more money in the forest service.’ But in order to do that, you need a college degree.”

Besides income and employment, there are other benefits of college that can improve your quality of life. College graduates, for example, are much more likely to exercise on a regular basis, according to the College Board report. Among four-year college graduates between the ages of 25 and 34, 63 percent exercised vigorously before being surveyed in 2008, compared with 37 percent of high school graduates.

College graduates are also less likely to be obese, the College Board report shows. Among 25- to 34-year-olds, 20 percent of four-year college graduates were obese, compared to 34 percent of high school graduates. In addition college graduates are less likely to smoke. In 2008, 9 percent of four-year college graduates smoked, compared with 27 percent for high school graduates.

There are multiple benefits for children if their parents are college graduates. Parents who have earned a bachelor’s degree are more likely to read to their children; among college graduates , 68 percent read to their children daily in 2007, compared to 41 percent of high school graduates. In addition, college graduates participate more frequently with their school-age children in a range of activities, from visiting a library to attending a concert.

College graduates are also more involved in their communities and are more likely to vote in elections and volunteer for organizations, according to the College Board report.

“Their lives are just so much better, not just in terms of income, but in terms of the style of life that they have,” says Rooney, a professor emeritus of psychology and director of the master’s program in clinical counseling at La Salle University in Philadelphia. “You just learn to appreciate a lot of things in life, like reading and enjoying the various types of entertainment, such as theater, music and art.”

“But it’s a little more than that. I think it’s the sense that you understand better what’s going on in the world — your relationship with politics and community. You’re freed from a narrowness that many of us might grow up with in terms of neighborhood and family. We build on that and go beyond it.”

That is what happened to Neil Gussman, a Philadelphia communications professional who initially decided to work on a Teamster loading dock outside Boston after graduating from high school. During his apprenticeship, Gussman realized that many of his coworkers on the loading dock were in their 50s and 60s and were earning the same salary he was.

After serving in the army for seven years, Gussman finally utilized his military education benefits to enroll in college and eventually earned a bachelor’s and a master’s degree from Pennsylvania State University at Harrisburg. Today, he works as a strategic communications and media relations manager at the Chemical Heritage Foundation, a library and museum in Philadelphia.

“Just becoming an expert in something gives you a different way to look at the world,” Gussman says. “If you have a degree in anything, people will know you’re adaptable and you can learn things. You have so much better a chance of getting a job. And in this economy, having options is a really good thing.”

Extraction of Sodium and Uses of Its Important Compounds

Sodium compounds had been known for some time prior to 1807, when English chemist Sir Humphrey Davy (1778-1829) succeeded in isolating sodium itself. The element is represented by a chemical symbol (Na), reflecting its Latin name ‘natrium’. In its pure form, sodium has a bright, shiny surface, but in order to preserve this appearance, it must be stored in oil: sodium reacts quickly with oxygen, forming a white crust of sodium oxide. Pure sodium never occurs in nature; instead, it combines readily with other substances to form compounds, many of which are among the most widely used chemicals in industry. It is also highly soluble: thus whereas sodium and potassium occur in crystal rocks at about the same ratio, sodium is about 30 times more abundant in sea-water than its sister element.

 Though the extraction of sodium involves the use of a special process, the metal is plentiful in the form of sodium chloride, better known as table salt. In fact, the term salt in chemistry refers generally to any combination of a metal with a nonmetal. More specifically, salts are (along with water) the product of reactions between acids and bases. Sodium chloride is so easy to obtain, and therefore so cheap, that most industries making other sodium compounds use it, simply separating out the chloride before adding other elements. The United States is the world’s largest producer of sodium chloride, obtained primarily from brine, a term used to describe any solution of sodium chloride in water. Brine comes from seawater, subterranean wells, and desert lakes, such as the Great Salt Lake in Utah. Another source of sodium chloride is rock salt, created underground by the evaporation of long-buried saltwater seas. Other top sodium-chloride-producing nations include China, Germany, Great Britain, France, India, and various countries in the former Soviet Union. Salt may be cheap and plentiful for the world in general, but there are places where it is a precious commodity. One such place is the Sahara Desert, where salt caravans ply a brisk trade today, much as they have since ancient times.

Modern methods for the production of sodium represent an improvement in the technique Davy used in 1807, although the basic principle is the same. Though several decades passed before electricity came into widespread public use, scientists had been studying its properties for years, and Davy applied it in a process called electrolysis. Electrolysis is the use of an electric current to produce a chemical reaction, in this case, to separate sodium from the other element or elements with which it is combined. Davy first fused or melted a sample of sodium chloride, then electrolyzed it. Using an electrode, a device that conducts electricity and is used to emit or collect electric charge, he separated the sodium chloride in such a way that liquid sodium metal collected on the cathode, or negatively charged end. Meanwhile, the gaseous chlorine was released through the anode, or the positively charged end. The apparatus used for sodium separation today is known as the Downs cell, after its inventor, J. C. Downs. In a Downs cell, sodium chloride and calcium chloride are combined in a molten mixture in which the presence of calcium chloride lowers the melting point of the sodium chloride by more than 30%. When an electric current is passed through the mixture, sodium ions move to the cathode, where they pick up electrons to become sodium atoms. At the same time, ions of chlorine migrate to the anode, losing electrons to become chlorine atoms. Sodium is a low-density material that floats on water, and in the Downs cell, the molten sodium rises to the top, where it is drawn off. The chlorine gas is allowed to escape through a vent at the top of the anode end of the cell, and the resulting sodium metal, that is, the elemental form of sodium, is about 99.8% pure.

Sodium chloride is by far the most widely known and commonly used sodium compound and this in itself is a distinction, given the fact that so many sodium compounds are a part of our daily life. Today people think of salt primarily as a seasoning to enhance the taste of food, but prior to the development of refrigeration, it was vital as a preservative because it kept microbes away from otherwise perishable food items. Salt does not merely improve the taste of food; it is an essential nutrient. Sodium compounds regulate transmission of signals through the nervous system, alter the permeability of membranes, and perform a number of other life-preserving functions. On the other hand, too much salt can aggravate high blood pressure. Thus, since the 1970s and 1980s, food manufacturers have increasingly offered products low in sodium, a major selling point for health-conscious consumers.

In addition to its widespread use in consumer goods, sodium chloride is the principal source of sodium used in making other sodium compounds. These include sodium hydroxide, for manufacturing cellulose products such as film, rayon, soaps, and paper, and for refining petroleum. In its application as a cleaning solution, sodium hydroxide is known as caustic soda or lye. Another widely used sodium compound is sodium carbonate or, soda ash, applied in glass-making, paper production, textile manufacturing, and other areas, such as the production of soaps and detergents. Sodium also can be combined with carbon to produce sodium bicarbonate, or baking soda. Sodium sulfate, sometimes known as salt cake, is used for making cardboard and Kraft paper. Yet another widely used sodium compound is sodium silicate, or “water glass,” used in the production of soaps, detergents, and adhesives; in water treatment; and in bleaching and sizing of textiles. Still other sodium compounds used by industry and/or consumers include sodium borate, or borax; sodium tartrate, or sal tartar; the explosive sodium nitrate, or Chilean salt-peter; and the food additive monosodium glutamate (MSG). Perhaps ironically, there are few uses for pure metallic sodium. Once applied as an “anti-knock” additive in leaded gasoline, before those products were phased out for environmental reasons, metallic sodium is now used as a heat-exchange medium in nuclear reactors. But its widest application is in the production of the many other sodium compounds used around the world.

Securing Funding Grants for Nursing School

When you’re finally ready to begin your medical career, you will need to attend at least 2 years of nursing school.  However, when you see the costs of nursing school, you may be somewhat hesitant to go on with the process.  Nursing school can be very expensive, there is no doubt.  However, there are often scholarships available to students that spend some serious time looking for them.  It is not uncommon that some scholarships may even go un-awarded because of a lack of qualified applicants.  But armed with the information in this article, you will have the knowledge of where to look to get your nursing education funded.

Start at School

If you have a program at a specific nursing school in mind, ask the people at the school’s financial aid office.  They will usually have a list of scholarships; application forms may even be readily available.  Simply contact the office at the same time you start your application to the school.  Even if the financial aid office does not have a scholarship list, they can often give you some direction and tell you where their other students may have successfully located financing for their nursing education.

Community Organizations

If you are involved with a community organization, contact them to see if there are scholarships for members (or former members).  Some private companies that service the medical industry, like medical scrub retailers, may provide scholarships as a community service.  You can apply for scholarships with your spouse or significant other’s community affiliations, too.  For example, if you or your partner is a member of a local union, you can sometimes get access to members-only scholarships.

Search the Web

More and more information is available on the web than ever before.  Start with entering in a general search for “nursing school scholarships”.  You will find many scholarship search sites, like fastweb.com, that will usually have hundreds of scholarship possibilities available.

Be careful – while there may be many nursing scholarships listed, you need to be very sure that you are going to valid websites that are providing you with reputable organizations.  Some websites may impose a charge for the scholarship searches, but this shouldn’t be necessary in most cases.   You should be able to receive a good listing of scholarships without needing to pay anything.

Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA)

You can also visit the FAFSA website to apply for nursing student loans and grants to help defray your tuition costs.  Sometimes, you can find good scholarship resources there as well.

Be In It To Win It

Once you have your list of these scholarship opportunities, what’s next?  Here are several basic tips to make sure that your application will stand out from the rest:

  • Meet the application deadline
  • Completely fill in all required information
  • Be sure that you meet all of the qualifications
  • Take your time writing the essays
  • Eliminate all typos and misspellings
  • Don’t forget to fill in the complete, correct contact information
  • Tell the truth

When you’re seeking scholarships, you may find that it is easier than you thought to find available funding for budding nurses.  Since there is currently a nursing shortage, many schools offer scholarships to make sure that there will be enough nurses to serve the demand in the future.  Even if you don’t find a full scholarship, when you are done with school many nursing employers will reimburse educational costs as long as you agree to stay employed with them for a specific number of years.

There are many opportunities out there, so don’t let the high cost of a nursing education stand in the way of achieving your dreams!

Burger King Scholarship Application – Want a $10,000 Scholarship?

There are various Burger King Scholarship Application you can apply for to help with your college costs.  We have made your search a bit easier by listing a few of these Burger King Scholarship Application you can apply for.  You should also do your own research for scholarships that you may qualify for.

*** Click Here to Register Free for the $10,000 Scholarship ***

Scholarship Zone offers a $10,000 scholarship for anyone to register.  To be eligible to register for the scholarship you need to live in the United States and be at least 18 years of age or older.  To enter the scholarship giveaway, you just need to fill out their registration form.  Before the next drawing happens, don’t forget to register on the site for your chance to win.

A second scholarship program that you should take a look at is the Sam Walton Community Scholarship.  Eligible students can win upwards of $1,000.  To apply for this scholarship you will need to submit examples of poetry, non-fiction and your best essays.  

Another program that you may wish to take a look at is the Walmart Associate Scholarship.  To apply, submit works in humor, dramatic script, and journalism.  Poetry and non-fiction are other types of writing that you can also send in.

*** Click Here to Register Free for the Burger King Scholarship Application $10,000 Scholarship ***

For better chances of getting more money, simply apply for more scholarship opportunities.  So find those scholarships you qualify for and apply for all of them if possible.

Remember that getting a scholarship can be in many ways a numbers game.  Make sure to apply to as many scholarship opportunities that you qualify for because this will greatly improve your chances of actually being awarded a scholarship.