The Phlogiston Theory and the Modern Chemistry

Whereas a large proportion of chemical reactions involve changes in oxidation states, one of the most vehement disputes, in the history of chemistry, concerns the nature of oxidation. In 1718, George Stahl, a German Chemist, proposed that metals form from oxides that are heated with charcoal because the metals absorb a substance that he named Phlogiston. He also proposed that the heating of a metal in air to form its oxide caused the release of phlogiston to the atmosphere.

Phlogiston theory evolved throughout the 18th century, because many experiments were being performed which needed to be explained. Though phlogiston theory made some sense, the experiments which, more and more, convinced chemists that phlogiston was incorrect, were quantitative experiments. Most of these experiments were being performed by Antoine Lavoisier who is called as the father of modern chemistry and his followers, known as the Antiphlogistians. They would come up with an objection to phlogiston theory, and the Phlogistians (usually Priestley) would modify the theory to fit the new experiment. As the years went on, more and more Phlogistians became Antiphlogistians, until only Priestley was left. The Antiphlogistians measured the weight of every substance involved in the experiment, even the gasses. When iron rusts away completely, the rust actually weighs more than the original iron. When charcoal burns, the resultant carbon dioxide (fixed air) weighs more than the original charcoal. So, in every case, phlogiston would have to have a negative weight. This disturbing attribute convinced most of the last Phlogistians to abandon their theory.

Fifty four years later, the French chemist Louis-Bernard Guyton de Moravia stated that phlogiston has a negative weight in order to explain his findings that during combustion metals increase in weight. Soon after, it was Antoine Lavoisier who dared to question the phlogiston concept and proposed that combustion was due to addition of oxygen to the metal (oxidation) and that the formation of a metal from an oxide corresponded to the loss of oxygen (reduction). The Phlogistians were not a bunch of cranks. They were serious scientists who helped resolve some of the basic questions of chemistry, by being the devil’s advocate against the Antiphlogistians, and by discovering important experiments. And, for almost the entire 18th century, the phlogiston theory was more satisfying than the alternative, in some ways. The Antiphlogistians deduced that combustion was combination of a substance with oxygen (Priestley’s dephlogisticated air). But, they could not tell why substances combined with oxygen, or even why all substances didn’t just burn up. Phlogiston theory explained this by saying that it was because some substances were rich in phlogiston, and burned. It was only later that more satisfactory explanations were discovered.

It may seem hard to believe that phlogiston theory, which is incorrect, was so persistent. How could it survive all of the attacks, and come back for more? People think that the answer is that phlogiston theory is actually very close to the truth. If we consider a chemical’s tendency to take up oxygen, and call its lack of oxygen “phlogiston,” we can describe absolutely any chemical reaction involving oxygen. Instead of putting oxygen on one side of any chemical equation, we can put this anti-oxygen on the other side. It will always balance. One atom of phlogiston would always have an atomic weight of -16, and the weights will always balance, too. So, we can always construct a self-consistent phlogiston theory, even today. We can go about disproving the theory of phlogiston if we merely burn carbon in oxygen, and accurately measure all of the gasses and solids, before and after. We would find that carbon plus oxygen became carbon dioxide. We can determine that the final gas contains carbon dioxide. If we start with the right amounts of carbon and oxygen, we may be able to show that the final gas is nothing but carbon dioxide. 

It is worth mentioning that taking it for granted that the editors of the French Science Journal would not publish his proposal due to his phlogiston Inclination, Lavoisier, with his new converts and associates, had to establish a new journal to publish his new Chemistry. Fortunately, it was the overthrow of the phlogiston theory that caused chemists to realize that elements were the fundamental substances in chemistry and the modern chemistry came into being.

Different Aspects Which Should Be Considered For Writing Research Paper Proposals

Research paper proposal is a mandatory requirement for students in high school and colleges to begin their research work. Presenting a research paper proposal becomes mandatory for students who have to write a thesis or dissertation to acquire their degrees. Here is a list of aspects concerning research paper proposals which aid students a good deal to come up with new ideas for their research work:

Significance: Preparation of a proposal is crucial for students to begin their process of research. Proposal for research serves as the foundation stone for students to begin their process of writing. A proposal help students in coming up with different ideas for research. Research paper writing is quite an interesting task for students if they perform it with full dedication and motivation.

Function: Research paper proposals aid students in performing different kinds of functions for their research. Proposal aid students to determine authenticity of different resources which they will be utilizing for carrying out their research work. A research paper proposal helps students to organize their paper in an effective manner. It is a proposal that sets the purpose and goals of research for students.

Features: A good proposal will tell reader about the topic of your interest in an effective manner. It would feature a good title, fine introduction about the topic and paragraphs supporting the aims and objectives of research. Sources will be utilized effectively to collect the required data for research. It actually provides the way you should analyze the data for your research in reference to the literature review.

Consideration: You may be required to submit the proposal in a particular format. You should write down the proposal for your research according to the format prescribed by your professor. If you see any problem with your research paper format; then, you should consult your professor to guide you further along with your research.

Benefits: You will be putting efforts with your heart and soul to acquire information about the topic. A fair amount of work about the topic would have been done in the past; you would be adding your research work to the existing literature that will further improvise the existing knowledge. A proposal can also aid you realize whether the topic of your research should be explored or not; you can back out from it anytime if you saw any flaws in your research.

There is one thing that helps students a good deal before they begin their process of research paper writing. Students should consult with their course supervisor or teacher before they begin the process of research paper writing. Consulting with the course supervisor and teacher can aid students to find out flaws in their research work so that they can modify and improvise the proposal for research.

Bank Exam preparation

Now a days, Banks whether government or private recruitments are increasing day by day. These jobs are giving the opportunities to the forthcoming aspirant to acquire a secure and satisfactory job. In this sector jobs are among the hot favorite. For getting job in the bank sector one should have to pass a written examination. The Bank PO and clerk exam is so common for bank job.
A candidate must have to practice hard for the bank exams and he/she should also be prepared for the further procedures such like interviews or Group Discussion. The competition is so hard-hitting and it doesn’t mean that it is impossible to crack it or hard to gain good score for the job. Continues practice and proper timing schedule is needed for it. For practice you can go through the previous year sample papers and various mock papers too keep you update about the pattern of exam. Basically the exam includes the questions from the subjects of General awareness, Mathematical question, Aptitude and Reasoning test.
If you are going to appear for the bank exam then make you must kept in mind for the following points:
1) Check out Time Given.
2) Do not guess until you are sure.
3) Practice is the key to success.
4) Do not Mark answers thoughtlessly.
5) Keep your answers Accurate and don’t overwrite frequently.
6) Select Your Strong Field as Well as Weak Field in the Exam.
7) Negative Marking.
The time duration that is given to candidates for solving the bank exam paper is limited and you must be quick in mind to solve the exam paper within the minimum time. After reading a question before solving it just view the options that are given which give the idea that you have to mark.
There are various study materials for the students that are provided by many different training centers and you can also get the online help or resources for the preparations of your bank exams. Try to solve the full question paper in minimum time duration. You can practice for it by practicing wisely to solve the sample paper with keeping a stop watch or an alarm clock with you, so you can be prepared best for your bank exam. It is a common practice to crack any exam. As stated before the proper time schedule is also needed for getting success, so keep the proper timings for all the activities such like study time and mind refreshing time (or playing time) should be maintained.

IIT Indian institute of technology, kanpur, roorkee, delhi, madras, bombay, kharagpur,guwahati

For more details about various IIT’s:
https://sites.google.com/site/itstudentjunction/college

IIT Indian institute of Technology

The Indian Institutes of Technology (IIT ‘s) are a most premium institutes in india providing education in engineering and technology-oriented courses . IIT was established and declared as Institutes of National Importance by the Parliament of India.

Courses offered at IIT ‘s

Under graduation & post graduation in various streams Engineering, Msc, MCA, MBA

Admissions in IIT

Admissions take place merit wise & is based on entrance examination IIT JEE For Btech , GATE for M.Tech, JAM for M.Sc. and CEED for M.Des. The admission for Ph.D. program is based primarily on a personal interview, though candidates may also have to appear for written tests.

Best iits in nation are:

(IIT) Indian institute of technology IIT , kanpur

(IIT) Indian Institute of technology Delhi IITD

(IIT) Indian Institute of technology- Roorkee – IITR

(IIT) Indian Institute of technology – Chennai – IITC

(IIT) Indian Institute of technology – Mumbai – IITB

(IIT) Indian Institute of technology – Kharagpur – IITKGP

(IIT) Indian Institute of technology -Guwahati – IITG

IIT Kanpur – Indian institute of technology , kanpur – IITK

IIT Kanpur was established in 1959, Ranked 63rd place amoung worlds best engineering colleges by US News in 2010

IIT Delhi – Indian Institute of technology, Delhi – IITD

IIT Delhi was established in 1961, converted to IIT in 1963 and ranked 52nd place amoung worlds best engineering colleges by US News in 2010

IIT Roorkee – Indian Institute of technology, Rookee – IITR

IIT Roorkee, established in 1847; converted to IIT in 2001 and is the oldest Technical Institution of Asia

IIT madras – Indian Institute of technology, madras – IITM

IIT madras was established in 1959 and ranked 68th place amoung worlds best engineering colleges by US News in 2010

IIT Bombay- Indian Institute of technology, Bombay – IITB

IIT Bombay was established in 1958 and ranked 47th place amoung worlds best engineering colleges by US News in 2010

IIT Kharagpur – Indian Institute of technology, Kharagpur – IITKGP

IIT kharagpur was established in 1950, converted to IIT in 1951 and ranked 90th place amoung worlds best engineering colleges by US News in 2010

IIT Guwahati – Indian Institute of technology, Guwahati – IITG

IIT Guwahati was established in 1994

 

Some other IIT ‘s that are established are:

IIT Bhubaneshwar
IIT Gandhinagar
IIT Himachal Pradesh
IIT Hyderabad
IIT Indore
IIT Patna
IIT Punjab
IIT Rajasthan

For more details about various IIT’s:
https://sites.google.com/site/itstudentjunction/college

Career as an IAS officer

A secured career is the aim of every student these days. The students are always in search of career options, which would help them in building a safe and a bright future. There are a number of career options these days, but to choose the best among them is the most important task. Choosing the career field is the first and the most important step that a student needs to take towards the growth of his career. The selection of the right career opportunity can actually lead a student to a safe and a secure job. The right education in a right institution by the right student is the factors, which constitute towards the development of a prospering nation. The colleges in India are with time adopting the changes, to make the education process more refined and intellectual.

The career choices are always based on the interest of the students, which in a way adds to the hard work instilled by them towards the attainment of their goal. There are many career opportunities in India, which provides a secure and a safe future to the student. Career as an IAS officer, is one career option, which not only provides safety, but also entitles the student with the tag of a government officer. The student gets to work as a part of the Indian government. Also, the perks and other benefits of being a government servant are very huge and lucrative. Though it’s very tough to clear the entrance examination for being an IAS officer, which is UPSC, but once cleared, the future of the student is set. UPSC is Union Public Service Commission. The exam for UPSC can be given by any student having a graduation degree from one of the recognised universities of the country. Also, the student has to be a citizen of the country and should be of or above the age of 21.

The examination for becoming an IAS officer is called the civil services examination. The students clearing the civil services examination get to work in the civil administrative bodies and the law making associations. The examination for IAS officer, takes around a year to complete. The entrance form and the brochure can be collected from any of the post offices of the country. As there are three stages, which a student has to clear to pass the civil services examination. The three stages are:

Preliminary examinations: This is the first stage if civil services exam. This exam is conducted in the month of May or June, in which two papers are taken named as

  • General studies- In this the questions related to the Indian history, general awareness, Indian politics and economics, education culture, social reforms, national movements, developmental programmes, general science, etc can be asked. This test paper is for 150 marks.
  • Exam on Optional subject- There are a number of optional subjects, out of which a student can choose the subject of his choice. Almost all the subject are included in the optional list, due to which, students generally choose the subject of their graduation, so they have chances to score better. This test is for 300 marks.

The results of the preliminary examinations decides, whether the student can appear for the main exams or not. The results of the preliminary exams come in the month of July or August.

Main examinations: There are total of nine exams under the tag of main exams. The list of which is as following:

  • One Essay type Indian Language Qualifying Paper, 300 marks
  • One English Qualifying Paper, 300 marks
  • One General Essay type paper, 200 marks
  • Two General Studies papers, 300 marks each
  • Four Optional subjects papers, 300 marks each

After clearing the main entrance examination, the student is called for an interview, where he is judged over his personality and communication skills. The positions in the IAS or IPS or other divisions of the civil services depend on the score one obtains in his overall test. The better a student scores, brighter are his chances of getting a good job in the IAS or IPS division. It takes years to prepare for the civil services examinations. Most of the students take classes for their preparation. There are many institutes in India, which makes a student prepare for IPS or IAS entrance tests, and which trains them to achieve the required level of knowledge and education to be able to compete in the entrance tests.