3 Ways to Avoid Plagiarism Mistakes in College Essays

Rushing through their essays may encourage students to copy from sources. However, most students are not aware that this is a serious academic offense that even violates the intellectual property rights of authors and publishing companies. Thus, it is not surprising why teachers give emphasis on the penalties students may face when they plagiarize. But the good news is students can avoid any trouble by acquainting themselves on the most common plagiarism mistakes.

Giving Credit Where It Is Due
In writing essays, students must cite sources every time they use other people’s ideas, views or hypotheses. Providing citation is one of the cardinal rules of academic writing. Whether students are doing simple book reviews on a particular author or a 15-paged term paper, keeping this basic rule at heart means students are halfway through their writing assignments.

Statistical Data Help
It’s not only “words” that get cited for plagiarism. Drawings, graphs, statistics or any fact are necessary in making essays interesting and easy to understand.  Thus, it is of great importance that students of any discipline include relevant data or figures in their writing tasks.  Also, statistics help tie up information together thereby helping the readers comprehend the writer’s overall goal or goals.

When to Use Quotation and  Paraphrasing
Quotations are beneficial in making a research paper look more credible.  A writer only needs to remember that he or she must choose the most appropriate one. Including a quote is not the only goal, but positioning the quote in the right sentences of the essays enhances the paper’s credibility in the eyes of any critical reader.

Paraphrasing is another writing technique that helps students to convey their ideas. Actually, it is advisable to paraphrase a group of words, whether they are spoken or written. But in doing so, the writer must also give credit to the people who have spoken or written them.

These are simple rules that any student can keep in mind when writing their essays. By observing these guidelines, any writing will be free from costly plagiarism mistakes. Moreover, students can also appreciate their writing assignments more as they build a strong foundation in observing copyright standards. After all, students may find themselves the victims of copyright infringement years after completing their essays in school.

Innovation and Porter’s Five Forces Theory

Innovation is the process of making advances by inventing something new. It is the introduction of a new idea, method or device. In other words, innovation is a change that improves an already existing product or idea. Besides, successful usage of new ideas can be called an innovation. A company cannot exist and develop without innovation technologies in the modern competitive world. It must innovate in order to survive. Innovation is the major factor of company’s success and growth. Innovation ‘is generally understood as the introduction of a new thing or method. Innovation is the embodiment, combination, or synthesis of knowledge in original, relevant, valued new products, processes, or services’ (Luecke and Katz 2003, p. 2). Innovation includes technical innovation (products and services) and social innovation (organizations and markets). The most successful innovation strategies are made up of both elements.

Innovation goes along with creative though these are two different notions. Innovation means action on the basis of creative ideas. All innovation begins with creative ideas. We define innovation as the successful implementation of creative ideas within an organization. In this view, creativity by individuals and teams is a starting point for innovation; the first is necessary but not sufficient condition for the second. Several years ago the innovation became an urgent necessity for companies. Since that time most companies focus their attention on this issue. In a modern world companies must continue the innovative process for keeping the brand popularity and meeting the customers’ needs via strategic planning and development of products.

A successful company should manage its brand effectiveness and popularity via developing the innovative strategies. Innovation connects the possibilities of a company with unmet customers’ needs. A company must strategically plan in what way to keep and enlarge brand effectiveness. Product and service innovation are used for achieving the result. For instance, the Apple Corporation has an effective brand popular as a customer-focused corporation. Every company provides some kind of services. These services must be improved via innovation strategies to make the client come back again and again. Innovation is the mainspring of the company’s growth and prosperity. It consists of product, service and brand innovation.

How To Write A Medical Or Science Essay

“Do not write so that you can be understood; write so that you cannot be misunderstood.”

Epictetus

 

During my time at Oxford University Medical School I learned to write well-reasoned, engaging essays.  In later years, while at Kings College Medical School, I learned to teach students to write in a similar manner.  The stamina engendered by the Oxford tutorial system meant that I was frequently writing five essays a week, meaning that clarity and good structure were essential components to an essay to make sense of the onslaught of information.  Essay writing is still an essential skill for medical students to acquire, in order to think through complex arguments that mirror the process of making differential diagnoses when a practising doctor.  Certain key approaches are essential for whatever topic is being tackled.

 

Examine the question

Take time to study the question that is being asked.  Frequently, subtleties can be gleaned from the phrasing of the question that may not be evident on first glance.  The question could be turned on its head, allowing for different arguments to be presented in the body of the essay.  It is tempting to launch into an essay that includes everything you know on the topic in the question, but this may miss the angle that the person who set the essay is interested in, losing valuable marks on relevancy.  What does the question ask you to do?  Is it to “compare”, “analyse” or “contrast” the subjects, for example?  Remember to refer back to the question when you are writing the body of the essay to ensure you do not stray too far from the central core of the problem.

  

Planning the essay

Although it only takes five minutes, this is the most crucial part of writing an essay.  The essay plan is the battlefield on which the war of the essay is won or lost.  On a fresh piece of paper, jot down all that you know on the topic area covered by the question.  It can be helpful to give each paragraph a heading.  As you write, fresh information will occur to you, parallels will be drawn and conclusions reached.  Keep this essay plan close by as you write, and add to it during the process.

  

Organise the essay

The introductory paragraph of the essay is a chance to deconstruct the title, with an opportunity to explore what is really meant by the question, and explain how you will respond to it.  If more than one option is possible from the wording, state which you will explore in the essay at this point.  It is acceptable to include some facts in this opening paragraph to introduce the subject to the reader, but it is important to keep these broad at this point. 

Each subsequent paragraph should be based on a related topic covered by the essay title.  The open sentence of each paragraph should outline what will be written in the paragraph, and the rest of the paragraph should be devoted to evidence to support that outline.  This will include your own analysis of evidence that you have read and quotations from source materials.  Quotations should be in quotation marks, with the author’s name and year of writing written in brackets at the end of the quote.  The closing line of each paragraph should attempt to lead onto the beginning of the next paragraph, known as “the hook”, and this should be considered when constructing your essay plan.

  

Conclusions

The final paragraph should be reserved for your conclusions or conclusion, but avoid making this too abruptly.  It is useful to summarise the arguments you have covered, and draw your essay to a close.  I always endeavoured to add to this traditional ending by highlighting areas of further research that are ongoing and may lead to new revelations, presenting the conclusions to the essay while looking to the future.  Or it may be appropriate to close with an interesting quote that you have come across in your reading that is relevant in a broad sense to your essay or conclusion.

  

Read through the essay

This may seem unnecessary to say, but giving your essay just one proofreading read through can save you important marks for spelling and grammar.  However, reading through can also highlight areas you have neglected in your arguments.  Compare your initial essay plan to your finished essay to check you have covered all the topics you originally thought of.  Although unnecessary for an exam essay, for a term-time essay it may be necessary to construct a bibliography.

  

Closing comments

Finally, try to develop a style to your writing that is engaging to the reader.  It is useful to read certain authors to seek suggestions for this style, ranging from Richard Dawkins to Matt Ridley.  Try to be concise and avoid the temptation to waffle without making a clear point.  And lastly, avoid a purely journalistic style, but also be wary of an overly scientific, bland approach.

 

Dr Natalie Shenker

BA (Hons), BM BCh (Oxon), MRCS (Eng)

www.oxfordmedicalediting.com

Quantitative Research

Running Head: Factors to take into consideration when undertaking quantitative research

Name:

University:

Course:

Date:

Abstract:

When undertaking quantitative research a researcher should take into consideration ethical issues such as confidentiality and anonymity, an appropriate data collection method such as questionnaires and interview should be selected. Another factor to consider is the sampling method to be used and how this will aid in answering the research question. Data collected should be accurate and this can be achieved by choosing probability sampling method and proper formulation of questions. Finally information collected should be confidential and respondents should remain anonymous.

Introduction:

This paper highlights the factors that should be taken into consideration when undertaking quantitative research, research questions are subdivided into two broad categories and they include descriptive research that is aimed at answering what exists in the society and explanatory research that aims at explaining why this exist in society. Research studies will in most cases include descriptive and explanatory research whereby they will highlight what exist in the society and also why this exists. The following are some factors that need to be taken into consideration when undertaking quantitative research.

Variables and units:

Quantitative research is based on the fact that social phenomenal can be quantified and expressed numerically and therefore can be analyzed using statistical methods,  quantitative research involves identification of observations units example individuals and households, variables are also identified that measure specific characteristics of the unit. The researcher should also classify variable collected into independent and dependent variables, this will help in answering the research question whereby the independent variable are collected to show their relationship with the dependent variable therefore the research study will identify the causal effect in the study. (Fowler, 2008)

The Process:

The research process entails a number of steps which include the research question, literature review, research design, data collection, data analysis, interpretation of results and answering the research question. (Hughes, 2006)

From the above diagram it is evident that there are steps that should be followed when undertaking quantitative research, these steps are discussed below: (Creswell, 2003)

1) Selection of topic:

The first step when undertaking quantitative research is the identification of the research topic, this involves designing the research question, the selection of the topic will depend on a number of factors and they include topic selection due to interest of an individual, significance of the social phenomena, research based on existing theories and the ability to research on the topic. (Creswell, 2003)

2) Literature review:

The next step is to undertake research on previous theories that have been developed based on the selected research topic. This step will also involve selection of the theoretical approach that will be used in the study. This step will also involve formulation of questions that will be answered in the study, at this point a literature review will be prepared in order to identify previous studies and theories that support the research questions and methods that will used in the study. (Creswell, 2003)

3) Research design:

Research design is determined by the research question, this involves identifying the most appropriate way to structure the quantitative research in order to answer the research question, the research question will also determine the type of data to be collected and analyzed.

4) Data collection methods:

The research design will involve selection of the most appropriate data collection method. Data collection methods include Questionnaires, Structured Interview, and Observation and analyzing documents

i) Questionnaires:

Questionnaires involve the formulation of questions that aid in the collection of data, questionnaires can be administered to respondents or mailed to the respondents, questionnaires are prepared and pre tested to determine whether questions are biased. Questions formulated will be based on the research question whereby they will aid in the collection of data that will help answer the research questions.  Questions will either be closed or open ended, open ended questions are those questions that will require the respondent to input his own answers to the questions whereas closed questions are those questions whereby the respondent will choose from a list of answers highlighted in the questionnaire.  (Fowler, 2008)

ii) Interviews:

An interview can be undertaken to collect data, there are two types of interviews and they include face to face interview and telephone interview, a face to face interview will involve collection of data whereby the respondent and research administrator sit together, a telephone interview on the other hand will involve calling the respondent and answers obtained over the phone, a face to face interview is considered more expensive given that the research administrator may be required to travel and also this process may be time consuming. (Fowler, 2008)

Interview are further subdivided into structured and unstructured interview, structured interview involves setting up a set of questions that will be administered while unstructured involve asking the respondent to elaborate on certain issues.  (Fowler, 2008)

iii) Observation

Observation is another method of collecting data, this method involves observing participants and recording data, for example collecting data on the number of vehicles that use a certain highway will involve the observation method of collecting data. (Fowler, 2008)

iv) Analyzing documents:

This is secondary data collection method that involves collecting data from published documents example journals and a book, other sources include online databases which are relatively cheap methods of obtaining data, this method is preferred given that it is less time consuming and also less costly. This method however have a disadvantage given that it may given rise to accuracy problems, data accuracy will depend on the purpose of the data collected and that there may rise problem when data may unavailable and therefore a researcher will be required to use primary sources of data which include interview and questionnaires. (Fowler, 2008)

When designing the research data collection methods it is important that the researcher takes into consideration the respondent attitude, data collection methods such as questionnaires should be designed taking into consideration the reaction of the respondents when a certain question is directed to them, also the research questions should be clear and simple and should not be leading questions.

The  other factor that should be taken into consideration is the cost, when selecting the data collection method one should take into consideration the cost associated with that method and whether there exist ways to reduce such costs, face to face interview sometimes may be costly and time consuming and therefore questionnaires that are relatively cheap may be preferred, also the questionnaires may be more appropriate given that they are less time consuming given that a lot of data can be collected at once, for example a study that involves participants from different regions and the respondent sends the questionnaires to the respondents. (Fowler, 2008)

5) Sampling:

Sampling in social research refers to the selection of a few respondents from a population, in some studies it is impossible to collect data from the entire population and therefore a sample is selected, when an appropriate sample is selected it results will represent the entire population, a sample reduces the cost associated with data collection and also reduces time consumed while collecting data. There are two types of sampling and they include probability sampling methods and non probability sampling methods.

In probability sampling the sampling error can be estimated and a confidence interval established for the entire population, probability sampling methods include random sampling, systematic sampling, stratified sampling and clustered sampling. (Stuart, 1994)

i) Simple random sampling:

In simple random sampling the population respondents or units are identified and a random number generator is used, each unit in the population is assigned a number and the unit corresponding with the random number generator is included in the sample. The appropriate sample size is calculated using the expected error and therefore the number of total units selected corresponds to the calculated sample size. (Stuart, 1994)

ii) Systematic sampling:

This is a probability sampling method that involves the selection of the sample using intervals, the first step in undertaking a systematic sample is assigning each unit a number, the researcher then decides on the appropriate sample size and then the sample is selected using intervals, example a study may use systematic sample with a ten unit interval, this means that the first number to be selected will be 1, the next 11, the next 21, if the interval is 5 then the first number will be 1 then 6 then 11 etc. (Stuart, 1994)

iii) Stratified sampling:

Stratified sampling is also an acceptable probability sampling method, this method involves subdividing the entire population using certain characteristics example stratifying data into regions or gender, the next step involves undertaking simple random sampling on the categories and selecting the appropriate sample size. (Maxwell, 2005)

iv) Snowball sampling:

Snowball sampling is another sampling method which is a non probability sampling method, this method involves selecting the first respondent and then asking the respondent to refer you to another respondent, a good example where Snowball sampling is used where we have certain units with unique characteristics, example a research study on gay marriages will use these sampling method, or a study on prostitution will involve this sampling method given that the respondents will refer you to people they know who have the same characteristics. (Stuart, 1994)

6) Ethical issues:

In research there are some ethical issues that need to be taken into consideration, this includes confidentiality, cause no harm to respondents, anonymity and consent. A researcher should treat information collected with confidentiality, this means that the researcher should not state that a particular respondents made a certain statement. The other ethical issue to observe is anonymity whereby the respondent should not given out their names or reference numbers that may identify them as the particular individual that gave certain statements. (Punch, 2005)

The other ethical issue is consent. Participants should be briefed on the purpose of the study and also be informed on any recording that may take place, this way the researcher should gain the consent of the participants by briefing them on the purpose of the study and also how the information will be recorded. Finally the research should not cause harm to the individuals, this takes place whereby the researcher should not ask questions that offend the participants. (Fowler, 2008)

7) Data analysis:

When data has been collected the next step is to analyze data using statistical techniques such as calculating the mean, variance, correlation and regression analysis, all the data collected should be analyzed but some exceptions are made for example cases where we have incomplete questionnaires are rejected and not included in the analysis. In this stage the researcher should report accurately the results obtained and should not in any way alter variables collected in achieving desired results. Data should be presented as they are and a report written to show how the data respond to the research question or topic. (Bamberger, 2000)

8) Other factors to consider:

A good research study will be free from bias, this means that the information and data collected from the study should not vary in any systematic way, and bias in a study may be eliminated through the use of random sampling and also eliminating biased treatment of participants that may affect their responses. (Flick, 2006)

Conclusion:

From the above discussion it is evident that when undertaking quantitative research one has to take into consideration a number of factors, the first step is to formulate a research question, the next step involves literature review where a researcher should search for information on previous studies undertaken on the chosen research question. The next step involves research design where the data collection method and the sampling method is chosen, a researcher may chose to use questionnaires, interview or observation to collect data.

Research design also involves choosing an appropriate sampling method when the population is large, sampling methods include random sampling, quota sampling, systematic sampling and stratified sampling. Sampling helps in reducing costs associated with collecting data from the entire population and also is less time consuming whereby the study is undertaken only a few participants.  After sampling and preparation of the data collection method the next step is data analysis and interpretation, this involves recording all the data collected and analyzing data to make statistical inferences and descriptive statistics, results should also report on how the data has helped answer the research question.

References:

Donald Stuart. 1994. Statistics: An introduction. Oxford: Blackwell press.

Floyd Fowler. 2008. Survey research methods. London: Sage Publishers.

John Creswell .2003.Research design: qualitative, quantitative and mixed method approaches. Oxford: Blackwell press.

Joseph Alex Maxwell. 2005. Qualitative and quantitative research design: an interactive approach. Cambridge: Cambridge university press

Keith Punch. 2005. Introduction to social research: quantitative and qualitative approaches. Oxford: Wiley and sons.

Loraine Blaxter, Christina Hughes and Malcolm Tight. 2006. How to research. Cambridge: Cambridge university press

Michael Bamberger .2000. Integrating quantitative and qualitative research. London: Butterworth Heinemann.

Uwe Flick. 2006. An introduction to qualitative research. Oxford: Blackwell press.

The Scientific Revolution in the Western Civilization

Despite of the Eastern Europe where the scientific thought did not exist as a notion and the notion of science was replaced by a notion of phylosophy, in the Western Europe the power of religion existed controlling all the spheres of state. In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries there were the first attempts to look at the world in a different way. The word ‘philosophy’ was used of ‘science’.

At that time many people changed their way of thinking looking away from the religion. They used their logic in an attempt to find answers the the most basic questions about life and death, world and universe. In general, science is an attempt to explain the world without the connection to gods. Science looks at the world as an object trying to explain how the Earth moves, etc. Religion, on the contrary, saw the world as a godlike beginning denying all scientific developments. At that time religion united people and was one of the major tools of power. Theocracy, a power of religion, meant that the church controlled everything in the state and all the scientific thoughts were not accepted, were denied. People were punished for their scientific works and innovations. Much time has passed when science became popular and scientific thoughts were published and people cound read these books.

The scientific revolution started in 1543 when Nicolas Copernicus published his ‘De revolutionibus orbium coelestium’ (On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres). The publication of this book was followed by Andreas Vesalius’s ‘De humani corporis fabrica’(On the Fabric of the Human body). The scientific revolution influenced the development of philosophical and religious thought in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. It had a great influence on the life of educated people of the Western World. The discoveries and scientific works of Copernicus, Kepler, Galileo Galilei, Rene Descartes, Francis Bacon, Albert Einstein, Grace Hopper and Newton became a real innovation at that time.

The scientific revolution was a solely Western phenomenon. It took lasted about 150 years and entirely changed the previous ways of thinking. This revolution is associated with natural science and a change in technology. However, scientific revolution was not just one change, but a number of changes in the way of thinking of people in the Western Europe. These changes influenced every aspect of people’s live: sculpture, painting, architecture.

In the Middle Ages there were taken the first attempts for understanding the physical world in the medieval universities. The philosophy began from the works of a well-known ancient philosopher Aristotle that had a great influence on people dominating in the Western Civilization (p.541). Besides, scientific revolution caused changes in two main disciplines – astronomy and biology. At that time biology meant the fundamental rules of anatomy and astronomy studies the solar system. The contemporary world and all its innovations appeared owing to the scientific revolution and as a result, the discoveries. Science became a fundamental source of knowledge, the major feature of the contemporary world.

Job Satisfaction, Tenure And Age

Running Head: Job Satisfaction, Tenure and Age

Name:

University:

Course:

Date:

Abstract:

The paper highlights some of findings from a journal article by Munevver (2006) on job satisfaction. the study showed that age and experience have a significant impact on job satisfaction and commitment. ANOVA test show that there is a significant difference in job satisfaction level (intrinsic) with reference to tenure, however there is no significant difference in job satisfaction (extrinsic) with reference to age.

Introduction:

This paper discusses the journal article by Munevver (2006) which analyses the difference in job satisfaction, organisation and occupation commitment with reference to gender, position, age, marital status and experience. Both organisation and occupation commitment are subdivided into three categories according to Meyer and Allen (1991) and they include affective, continuance and normative commitment. The following is a Summary of the article and an ANOVA test using AIU data to determine whether there is a significance difference in the level of job satisfaction (extrinsic) with reference to age, and also whether there is a significant difference in the level of job satisfaction (intrinsic) with reference to tenure.

Summary of the article:

Variables:

Variables in the study include job satisfaction, organisation commitment, occupation commitment, position, age, marital status, experience and gender. Organisation commitment according to Buchanan (1974) can be defined as the dedication of an employee to the purposes of an organisation (Munevver, 2006, p.78).

1) Organisation commitment:

Organisation commitment is subdivided into three broad categories and they include:

i) Affective (organisation) commitment:

Shore and Tetric (1991) define affective commitment as the interaction between the employee and the organisation whereby both have similar values, employees will stay in an organisation because they need and want the occupation (Munevver, 2006, p. 78).

ii) Continuance (organisation) commitment:

Meyer (1993) define continuance commitment as the difficulties employee face in case he or she decides to leave an organisation, due to experience gained an employee will find it difficult to leave an organisation due to costs associated and limited alternative available when one leave the organisation(Munevver, 2006, p. 78).

iii) Normative (organisation) commitment:

Meyer (1993) define normative commitment as an obligation felt by an employee about staying in an organisation, the employee will stay in an organisation because he feels that this is the right and ethical thing to do (Munevver, 2006, p. 78).

2) Occupational commitment:

Occupational commitment is the devotion of employees to their occupation according to Morrow (1989). In the case study occupation commitment is subdivided into affective, continuous and normative (Munevver, 2006, p. 78).

i) Affective (occupation) commitment:

This commitment can be defined as the performance of an employee’s role with pleasure and devotion to his or her occupation Meyer (1993).

ii) Continuance (occupation) commitment:

This form of commitment can be defined as the employee investment to his or her occupation. This refers to the cost that may be faced when an individual decides to leave the organisation (Munevver, 2006, p. 80).

iii) Normative (occupation) commitment:

Normative commitment according to (Munevver, 2006) refers to employee feelings toward his or her job, and the individual will feels that it is right and ethical to remain his job (Munevver, 2006, p. 80).

3) Job satisfaction:

Job satisfaction is another variable included in the case study, other studies show that sex affects job satisfaction, and however there are other factors that affect job satisfaction such as marital status whereby married employees tend to have higher job satisfaction than divorced employees (Munevver, 2006, p. 80).

Main findings:

T tests were undertaken to determine the differences in mean values of the variables, ANOVA analysis were also undertaken to determine the differences between job satisfaction, organisation commitment and occupation commitment with reference to age, experience and position.

  • Gender

T test results showed that there were no significance differences in job satisfaction and commitment with reference to gender (Munevver, 2006, p. 83).

  • Marital status

T test results showed that there was a significance differences in continuance (occupation) and normative (occupation) commitment whereby married employees had higher continuance occupation and normative occupation commitment levels. (Munevver, 2006, p. 83).

  • Age

ANOVA test showed that there was a significant difference in affective (occupation), normative (occupation) and continuance (occupation) commitment.

  • Position

ANOVA test showed that there was a significant difference in normative (organisation) and continuance (occupation) commitment.

  • Experience

ANOVA test showed that there was a significant difference in normative (occupation) and continuance (occupation) commitment.

ANOVA test:

This section uses AIU dataset values to determine whether there is a significance difference in the level of job satisfaction (extrinsic) with reference to age, also to test the hypothesis whether there is a significant difference in the level of job satisfaction (intrinsic) with reference to tenure.

Age and Job satisfaction:

The hypothesis to test is whether there is a significant difference in job satisfaction level with reference to age:

Hypothesis:

H0: mean1=mean 2= mean 3

Ha: mean1≠mean 2≠ mean 3

Where mean1, mean 2 and mean 3 are the mean job satisfaction levels for those aged 16 – 21, 22 – 49 and 50 – 65 years respectively.

The table summarises data analysed:

age

job satisfaction(extrinsic)

1

2

3

3.9

4.6

4.4

5.5

5.6

5.5

3.2

6.5

3.4

4.4

3.8

5.6

3.8

6.8

3.7

4.6

6.2

5.5

4.6

4.8

5.5

3.6

6.5

4.7

4.7

sum

43

38.3

40.1

n

10

7

8

mean

4.3

5.471428571

5.0125

From the table job satisfaction (extrinsic) mean value is 4.3 for those aged 16 – 21, 5.4 for those aged 22 – 49 and 5.01 for those aged 50 – 65 years. The table below shows the ANOVA test excel output:

ANOVA: Single Factor

SUMMARY

Groups

Count

Sum

Average

Variance

1

10

43

4.3

0.4511111

2

7

38.3

5.471429

1.2290476

3

8

40.1

5.0125

1.1383929

ANOVA

Source of Variation

SS

df

MS

F

P-value

F crit

Between Groups

5.938564286

2

2.969282

3.3667004

0.053014

3.443357

Within Groups

19.40303571

22

0.881956

Total

25.3416

24

Decision:

The calculated F value is 3.36667 and the F critical value is 3.443357, the f critical value is greater than the critical value and therefore the null hypothesis H0: mean1=mean 2= mean 3 is accepted.

Implications:

These results imply that job satisfaction (extrinsic) does not differ with age, this means that the job satisfaction mean value is equal for all groups given alpha = 0.05, therefore there exist no significant difference in job satisfaction (extrinsic) according to age.

Hypothesis two:

Test whether there is a significant difference in the level of job satisfaction (intrinsic) with reference to tenure.

Hypothesis:

H0: mean4=mean 5= mean 6

Ha: mean4≠mean 5≠ mean 6

Where mean4, mean 5 and mean 6 are the mean job satisfaction (intrinsic) levels for those whose tenure value is less than 2 years, 2 to 5 years and Over 5 Years respectively.

The table summarises data analysed:

tenure

job satisfaction(intrinsic)

1

2

3

3.7

4.2

4.7

4.5

4.3

5.1

4.5

4.5

5.5

5.3

5.2

6.2

5.8

6.2

3.4

6.2

6.4

4.2

5.7

6.5

6.3

3.2

6.6

4.5

6.2

sum

48.6

51.2

29.1

n

9

10

6

mean

5.4

5.12

4.85

From the table job satisfaction (intrinsic) mean value is 5.244, 5.5 and 4.6667 for those for those whose tenure value is less than 2 years, 2 to 5 years and over 5 Years respectively.

The table below shows the ANOVA test excel output:

ANOVA: Single Factor

SUMMARY

Groups

Count

Sum

Average

Variance

1

9

48.6

5.4

0.9575

2

10

51.2

5.12

1.317333

3

6

29.1

4.85

0.971

ANOVA

Source of Variation

SS

df

MS

F

P-value

F crit

Between Groups

1.1106

2

0.5553

0.501276

0.61251

3.443357

Within Groups

24.371

22

1.107773

Total

25.4816

24

Decision:

The calculated F value is 0.501276 and the F critical value is 3.443357, the F calculated value is greater than the critical value and therefore the null hypothesis H0: mean1=mean 2= mean 3 is rejected.

Implications:

These results imply that there exists significant difference in job satisfaction (intrinsic) with reference to tenure.

Conclusion:

From the above discussion job satisfaction and commitment are determined by a number of factors which include age, experience or tenure, gender and position, mean job satisfaction values(intrinsic) show that younger workers have higher job satisfaction (intrinsic) than older workers. ANOVA test on the difference in job satisfaction with reference to tenure show that there is a significant difference at 0.05 level of test; this means that job satisfaction is influenced by the level of experience or tenure.

References:

Buchanan (1974). Building organizational commitment: Science Quarterly. Vol. 19, page 533 to 546.

Meyer (1993). Commitment to organizations and occupations: Applied Psychology Journal. Vol 78, page 538 to 551.

Meyer and Allen (1991). A three component conceptualization of organizational commitment. Human Resource Management Journal. Vol 1, page 61to 98.

Morrow (1989). Work commitment among salaried professionals. Vocational Behaviour Journal. Vol 34, page 40 to 56.

Munevver Cetin (2006) the relationship between job satisfaction, organisation and occupation commitment of academics, the journal of American academy of business, vol 8, (1) pp.78 – 88

Shore and Tetric (1991). A construct validity study of the survey of perceived organizational support’. Applied Psychology Journal, vol 76(5), page 637 to 643.

Causes of Scientific Revolution

The Scientific Revolution became a real break in the development of science. It influenced the development of philosophical and religious thought being the major contradiction and innovation in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries and had a great influence on the life of educated people of the Western World. This article is devoted to the scientific revolution in the Western Civilization. In the paper special attention is paid to philosophical and religious thoughts in the connection to scientific thought.

The expansion of trade. Merchants undertook sea voyages and had navigational problems. These problems had to be solved and, as a result, there appeared scientific thought and research for finding possible solutions.

Medieval Universities. The philosophical talks and ancient philosophers’ studies, such as Aristotle and William Ockham, aroused interest and caused the thought.

The Renaissance was a period of great cultural development in Western Europe. It started in the 14th century. Leonardo da Vinci and Plato were interested in Mathematics. Thus, people became interested in this discipline too, because of the influence of great masters.

In general, the scientific revolution had several main aspects. They are the following:

• experimental method development;

• Mathematics and nature connection;

• scientific knowledge in practice;

• scientific institutions; development.

Scientific revolution did not appear at once. It developed for some period of time. Even though scientific revolution lasted for too long, it revolutionary changed the way people were thinking. The most significant changes occurred in biology (blood circulation study), astronomy (invention of a new universe model), chemistry (discovery elements of nature) and physics (invention of laws of gravitation and motion).

Thus, occurring in the period of the religious thought and power, scientific revolution brought significant changes to Europe and the whole world. The achievement and discoveries of that period of time formed the basis for the present world and all its innovations. However, the religious thoughts did not lost its importance and influence on people remaining a necessary force in the lives of European people. The article briefly analyzes scientific revolution in the Western Civilization and its causes. Besides, the paper examines philosophical and religious thoughts in the connection to scientific thought.

Stroop Effect

Title:

Reduction of the stroop effect

Abstract:

The stroop effect can be reduced through stroop dilution and this is achieved through the use of neutral words. This paper focuses on a study undertaken on a sample where n = 30 and the participants were exposed to three tests, one test included testing time taken to read colour words which had the same colour as the word stated, the second test was to record the time taken to read words colour words that had different colours as the colour word stated and the third and final test was to test the time taken for the individual to read neutral words containing different colours.

The study was undertaken to determine whether there was a reduction in the stroop effect which was to be based on the time taken to accomplish the three tasks, it was found out that indeed the stroop effect reduced ands this was noted due to the reduction in the time taken in reading the third task.

Introduction:

The stroop effect is viewed as the interference when undertaking a task; this effect was first coined by Ridley Stroop in 1935. his findings were that there was usually a delay when naming a colour name which is written in a different colour, example writing the word RED in colour red would result into much easier to read than if RED is written in blue, this is due to the stroop effect. Some theorists have come up with explanation of this effect and this includes the speed to process theory and the selective attention theory.

According to the speed of process theory the stroop effect is viewed as an interference which occurs because the words are read faster than colour naming, this theory states that words are easily read than the colours and for this reason the effect occurs. The selective attention theory on the hand states that the stroop effect occurs because colour naming requires more attention than when a person is reading the word, therefore because of the ease to read words the effect occurs.

The importance of the Stroop effect in psychology can be viewed in the ability to manipulate or control the effect which can be used to improve the cognitive abilities of individual and increases the chances of good judgment and decisions in actual world scenarios.

Other scholars such as Cho, Lien, and Proctor (2006) found out that neutral words can reduce the Stroop effect, the use of neutral wards is what is referred to as stroop dilution, However Brown, Roos Gilbert and Carr (1995) reported that the reduction of the Stroop effect does not differ when words or symbols are used. Kahneman and Chajczyk (1983) on the other hand stated that showed that Stroop effect is reduced when the incongruent colour word and neutral words are placed to the side (flanks) of the colour patch.  They noted that interference attributed to the Stroop effect required attention and that spreading the attention in more locations causes reduction of the Stroop effect.

Aims:

This paper investigates the ways by which we can reduce the stroop effect, the experiement undertaken entails the recording of time taken to read words in three different tasks, this study on the reduction could be useful in further understanding of the stroop effect and what causes it and whether the theories stated truly reflect the cause of the effect.

Hypothesis:

The average time taken to read neutral words is less than the time taken to read colour words that portray the stroop effect.

Methods:

Participants

A total of 30 respondents were randomly selected and were subjected to the Stroop tests. The profile of the respondent is an important factor in cognitive test since responses varies with age and sex (Trafton, Richard S., Garrison, William T., 1982). However, this study did not consider sex and age as a factor in identifying the respondents.

Design

The experiment was conducted using a  questionnaire which involved three tasks that was to be completed by the respondents one after the other, the respondents was to complete one task and record time used and then finish the other tasks recording time used to complete them. The tasks were designed in a way that the first tasks were not to portray the stroop effect, the second task was to portray the stroop effect and the final task was to portray colour dilution.

Materials

Each respondent was given a questionnaire which  are a list of colour names printed in different colours, the tasks were to be completed one after the other and the respondents were given a stop watch to help in determining the time used in completing these tasks. The list of test materials used in the test instrument is presented in Appendix 1.

Procedure

The test instruments were presented to respondents who use English as their first language with no problem in naming the colours. A form was filled up by the participants to show their consent in participating in the study. After a thorough explanation of the process the respondent were asked individually to complete the task and record time.

Results:

After the 30 complete questionnaires were collected the data was compiled into a single worksheet to undertake statistical inferences, the data collected is summarised in the table below, and detailed data from the study are available in appendix 2:

 

task one

task two

task three

respondent

time in seconds

time in seconds

time in seconds

total

28.29

32

28.03

mean

0.943

1.066666667

0.934333333

sd

0.130625815

0.204439239

0.237656422

variance

0.017063103

0.041795402

0.056480575

mode

0.88

0.99

0.88

median

0.905

1.025

0.935

From the above table the average time for the first task is 0.943, the mean for the second task is 1.0667 and the mean for the final task is 0.93433. The second task shows the stroop effect because more time is required to read the words than in the first task. To check the existence of the stroop effect in our study we will consider the hypothesis test whether the mean in the first task is less than the mean in the second task:

Hypothesis:

The stroop effect:

The mean of task one is less than the mean in task two:

Null hypothesis:

H0: x1 = x2

Alternative hypothesis

Ha: x1 < x2

The hypothesis test for this case will be as follows:

X1 – X2

Z    =   ___________

[(σ12/ n1) + (σ22/ n2)] ½

Then we substitute the formula as follows:

X1 is the mean for task one

X2 is the mean for task two

σ1 is the standard deviation of task one

σ2 is the standard deviation of task two

n is the sample size

0.943 – 1.066666667

Z    =   _________________________________

[ (0.017063103/ 30)  + (0.041795402/ 30)] ½

Z = -2.79196

At 99.5% level of test the Z critical value is 3.038

And because our Z critical is less than our Z calculated then we reject the null hypothesis, this means that the two means are not equal and this means that our data portrays the stroop effect.

The next hypothesis test is concerned about how to reduce the stroop effect through the use of neutral words also known as stroop dilution, for this case we are to check whether the mean for task two is greater than the men for task three, from the previous discussion task three involved the use of neutral words, whereas from the previous hypothesis task two portrayed the stroop effect, therefore we state the null hypothesis and the alternative hypothesis:

Null hypothesis:

H0: x2 = x3

Alternative hypothesis

Ha: x2 < x3

The hypothesis test for this case will be as follows:

X1 – X2

Z    =   ___________

[(σ12/ n1) + (σ22/ n2)] ½

Then we substitute the formula as follows:

X2 is the mean for task two

X3 is the mean for task three

σ2 is the standard deviation of task two

σ3 is the standard deviation of task three

n is the sample size which is equal to 30 in both cases

1.066666667 – 0.934333333

Z    =   _________________________________

[(0.041795402/ 30) + (0.056480575/ 30)] ½

Z = 2.312098

At 98% test level the Z critical value is 2.462

And because the Z critical is less than the Z calculated we reject the null hypothesis and accept the alternative hypothesis that states that x2 < x3, for this reason therefore it is clear that in our study the use of neutral words reduced the stroop effect.

Discussion:

In the study above the first and second task was to determine whether there was stroop effect in the tasks assigned, the first task involved a study that involved recording of time used in treading four words which were colour words and the second task involved reading words that were colour words but the font colour was different from the word meaning, the study through the hypothesis test showed that there was an increase in average time used to read out the words in task one, this increase shows the stroop effect.

The third task which involved reading out neutral words whose fonts had different colours was to check whether there was a reduction in the average time used to read out the words. From the hypothesis test it is clear that stroop dilution reduced the effect whereby the average time used to complete task two was greater than the average time used to complete task three.

From this reason therefore we can conclude that the stroop effect is the interference when undertaking a task, it also shows that the effect can be reduced by the use of neutral words also known as stroop dilution.

Conclusion:

The test of the stroop effect shows that there is usually an interference in performing reading tasks especially colour font words, however from this study stroop dilution is a way which the stroop effect can be reduced, this was the main aim of the study to check the validity of the assumption that stroop dilution can reduce the stroop effect, from the hypothesis test it is clear that the mean for completing the final task was less.

The study comprised of 30 respondents who were briefed on the aims of the study and all the respondents completed the tasks successfully and data used for statistical analysis. However there is need to undertake another study which involves a larger or different sample in order to validate the theory. Further studies should also be aimed at determining what causes the stroop effect and other how other methods can be used to reduce the effect.

The first and second task was to determine whether there was stroop effect in the tasks assigned, the hypothesis test of the means obtained in both tasks showed that there was an increase in average time used to read out the words in task one, this increase shows the stroop effect. The third task involved reading out neutral words whose the hypothesis test in this case showed that indeed the stroop effect was reduced due to the reduction in the mean time used to read out complete the task. Therefore stroop effect can be reduced by the use of neutral words also known as stroop dilution.

References

De Young, Robert (2007). Stroop task. Retrieved on September 27, 2007

Kahneman, D. & Henik, A. (1981).  Perceptual organization and attention.  In M. Kubovy & J.R. Pomerantz (Eds.), Perceptual Organization (pp. 184-189), Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

MacLeod, C. M. (1991). Half a century of research on the Stroop effect: An integrative review. Psychological Bulletin, 109, 163-203.

Raz, A., Kirsch, I., Pollard, J., & Nitkin-Kaner, Y. (2006). Suggestion reduces the Stroop Effect. Psychological Science, 17(2), 91-95

Appendices:

Appendix 1:

Appendix 2

 

task one

task two

task three

respodent

time in seconds

time in seconds

time in seconds

1

0.87

0.84

0.88

2

0.99

1.02

1.02

3

0.88

0.9

0.87

4

0.88

0.87

0.78

5

0.77

1.04

0.03

6

1.01

1.05

1.04

7

1.04

1.03

1.18

8

1.12

1.14

0.89

9

1.23

0.89

0.94

10

0.87

0.99

0.78

11

0.9

0.87

0.88

12

0.88

0.98

0.94

13

0.78

0.9

1.01

14

1.01

1.03

0.77

15

1.03

1.08

0.88

16

0.89

0.99

0.94

17

0.77

1.23

0.89

18

0.78

0.84

1.06

19

0.91

0.99

1.67

20

0.94

0.85

1.04

21

0.9

1.23

1.08

22

1.04

1.2

0.93

23

1.3

1.45

0.88

24

1.08

1.55

0.93

25

1.05

1.01

1.07

26

0.93

1.61

1.01

27

0.94

1.05

0.99

28

0.88

1.14

0.87

29

0.85

1.34

0.98

30

0.77

0.89

0.8

total

28.29

32

28.03

mean

0.943

1.066666667

0.934333333

sd

0.130625815

0.204439239

0.237656422

variance

0.017063103

0.041795402

0.056480575

mode

0.88

0.99

0.88

median

0.905

1.025

0.935

High School Teachers Love your Essay Writing

Why do they do it? Why do high school teachers love giving such homework assignments, as writing essays? And you are standing in the middle of a hallway, and screaming out loud: “Help me to write an essay!”

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You begin writing an essay with an introduction. And it’s not a good idea to start your essay writing with a boring statement like: “This is an essay about…” It’s not going to work. Want a tip for essay writing? Start with a joke or some interesting information. Something that captivates attention immediately – that’s good essay writing! Now you can put forward some of the ideas. It’s like the basic layer, on top of which you put your thesis. The one that you are to support while writing your essay.

Here are essay writing tips for the introduction: “He spent several days under the tree. Would you do something as passionately, as Buddha did?” Captivating, isn’t it?

Moving on with high school essay writing, we begin the body of the paper. It consists of three paragraphs. In writing essays each of the paragraphs has its own idea that is supported by facts. Some essay help here: don’t limit yourself only to someone’s opinion. Try to give facts and evidence, for they are more valuable and trustworthy. Some more essay writing help: don’t leave your most important ideas to the end of an essay. Try to distribute them equally. Here are essay writing tips for the body paragraph:

Statement: “At those times women were not allowed to become nuns”. Evidence: “But Buddha permitted his mother and sister to join him at his religion”. One more thing is important in essay writing: all of the stated ideas must support your thesis; otherwise, the essay will fall apart.

Your essay writing should end up with a conclusion. Don’t try to introduce new ideas. Don’t repeat the examples, which you’ve already given. Instead, restate your main argument. Here are essay writing tips for the conclusion:

- It’s a good idea to begin the last paragraph with a statement that reflects on what has been stated and proved, without repeating it exactly.

- Be direct and explicit in your essay writing.

- Go over your work. It is the best essay writing help, for you will be able to summarize what you have written.

High school essay writing is not just a weird assignment that takes away your free time. Writing essays is something you are to do in college. And it’s better to learn essay writing as early, as possible. The best help with essay writing and the best tips for writing an essay are always standard, and they are given above. Good luck with your essay writing!

Qualitative Research Methods

QUALITATIVE RESEARCH METHODS

TEENAGE PREGNANCY:

Introduction:

Teenage pregnancy can be defined as the occurrence of pregnancy among young women who have not attained the age of 20 years, Lina medina is the youngest teen mother who bore a child at the age of five years in 1939.

The collection of the data on the above mention areas of interest will both involve qualitative and quantitative data collection, the number and the occurrence of teenage pregnancy is quantitative, the type of country whether developed or developing is qualitative and the methods of collection of these data will involve a snow ball type of sampling and also information from hospitals and this information will aid in sampling the data.

Research process:

The research process will first involve data collection that will aid in sampling of the data; these data will be obtained from hospitals especially maternity hospitals where the data for mother who are under age can be obtained.

When the data is collected we will then sample the data and this first will mean clustering the data into two categories where we will differentiate the age differences and therefore obtain the cluster that has the ages below 20 years to obtain the teenage mothers. Questionnaires may not be helpful in obtaining the data needed because as earlier observed the teenager mothers may not be literate especially when dealing with those from developing countries. I

The research process will require that we formulate a questionnaire that will aid in the research process, the questionnaire should be formulated in such a way that it does not offend or upset the respondent, the questionnaire should not also be very long and it should be clear and easy for the respondent to understand.

Finances should be well budgeted and planned for because most researches fail due to lack of funds, however it may be very expensive to undertake such a research and therefore there is need to obtain a sponsor who will help fund the research. And finally when we obtain permission from authorities, formulate a questionnaire, get the finance and have our sample then we can go ahead and undertake our research.

Techniques:

The technique to use in this field of study will be both qualitative and quantitative, the data collected will require that we get the quantitative value of the respondents, their age, the number of children they have and the age of their children all this data will be qualitative, further when we formulate a questionnaire the data collected to signify whether the respondent is from a developed or a developing country will be qualitative, other qualitative data that will be collected will include questions that require responds such as yes or no, others will be open ended questions while others will require we formulate a scale such as good, very good, bad and very bad.

Analytical techniques:

By analytical techniques is the method of statistical manipulation of data that will aid in interpreting the data, analyzing the mean value of teenage pregnancy, the percentage increase or decrease in the level of occurrences, the highest affected areas, among others.

When data is collected there is need to interpret the results in a statistical manner, this will involve statistical calculations that help us standardize the data in such a way that the research results are well explained and findings are well interpreted by the interested persons who may be interested in the results of the study.

Some of the analysis that may be of interest in this study will be the mean value or the percentage per a 1000 have or had teenage pregnancy, the difference in the level of occurrence of teenage pregnancy between the developed and the developing countries, the factors that mostly influence the occurrence of teenage pregnancy such as lack of education, the lack to offer sex education to teenagers and the cultural background. All these factors must be included in the field of study and these will be of interest to establish the major cause of teenage pregnancy.

Research project:

In preparation of this research we have to first get familiar with topography if it is a field work type of research, by this we mean that the researcher should be familiar with the geographical location of the sites to conduct the research. Also in the case where the research will need to be conducted on illiterate people there is need to find interpreters, and also mobilization of funds to support the study from sponsors.

When we have familiarized with the location of study and also mobilized the funds we can go ahead and conduct the study, if we choose to set up a questionnaire then we will have to obtain the mailing list, if it’s an interview we will also have to obtain a question guide and even maybe an interpreter.

When all this is done the research can be undertaken and this will involve the collection of data, if a questionnaire is not completed by a respondent then the data has to be discarded, also the questionnaire should not require the respondent to give his name, they should be absolutely unanimous. The questionnaires should include all the areas that are of interest in the study and through the formulation of the complete questionnaire we will have to pretest it and improve on the areas that are not clear and therefore the research can now be undertaken.

Sources of information and data

To acquire the data and information on this study we will have to contact the maternity hospitals from these areas, undertake a field study that will involve identifying the respondents, acquiring a mailing list which will aid in posting the questionnaires to the respondents, therefore our information will be obtained directly from the responds.

We will need to also consult the already published journals so that we can get familiar with the subject of study, the study will involve consulting the journals and published work of others, finding out the areas and the weaknesses of their study, this will aid in conducting a good research and avoid replication of already undertaken research.

Critique of other research in this field:

Conclusion:

When conducting this research which is qualitative in nature we will have to first consider the scale of measure for various responses, we will therefore need to formulate a questionnaire in the collection of the data, there will still nee to be a qualitative ,measure therefore the research will be both qualitative and quantitative, the field study will involve establishing the causes of teenage pregnancy and the major cause of teenage pregnancy, it will also establish the remedies to the causes of teenage pregnancy.

References:

David Silverman (2004) Qualitative Research: Theory, Method and Practice, Sage Publications, US

Guttmacher (2007) teenage pregnancy, retrieved on 23rd April

Canada study on teenage pregnancy (2007) retrieved on 23rd April

Wikipedia the free encyclopedia (2007) Qualitative research, retrieved on 22nd April

Wikipedia the free encyclopedia (2007) teenage pregnancy, retrieved on 22nd April

Wikipedia the free encyclopedia (2007) Quantitative research, retrieved on 22nd April