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Quantitative Research

Running Head: Factors to take into consideration when undertaking quantitative research

Name:

University:

Course:

Date:

Abstract:

When undertaking quantitative research a researcher should take into consideration ethical issues such as confidentiality and anonymity, an appropriate data collection method such as questionnaires and interview should be selected. Another factor to consider is the sampling method to be used and how this will aid in answering the research question. Data collected should be accurate and this can be achieved by choosing probability sampling method and proper formulation of questions. Finally information collected should be confidential and respondents should remain anonymous.

Introduction:

This paper highlights the factors that should be taken into consideration when undertaking quantitative research, research questions are subdivided into two broad categories and they include descriptive research that is aimed at answering what exists in the society and explanatory research that aims at explaining why this exist in society. Research studies will in most cases include descriptive and explanatory research whereby they will highlight what exist in the society and also why this exists. The following are some factors that need to be taken into consideration when undertaking quantitative research.

Variables and units:

Quantitative research is based on the fact that social phenomenal can be quantified and expressed numerically and therefore can be analyzed using statistical methods,  quantitative research involves identification of observations units example individuals and households, variables are also identified that measure specific characteristics of the unit. The researcher should also classify variable collected into independent and dependent variables, this will help in answering the research question whereby the independent variable are collected to show their relationship with the dependent variable therefore the research study will identify the causal effect in the study. (Fowler, 2008)

The Process:

The research process entails a number of steps which include the research question, literature review, research design, data collection, data analysis, interpretation of results and answering the research question. (Hughes, 2006)

From the above diagram it is evident that there are steps that should be followed when undertaking quantitative research, these steps are discussed below: (Creswell, 2003)

1) Selection of topic:

The first step when undertaking quantitative research is the identification of the research topic, this involves designing the research question, the selection of the topic will depend on a number of factors and they include topic selection due to interest of an individual, significance of the social phenomena, research based on existing theories and the ability to research on the topic. (Creswell, 2003)

2) Literature review:

The next step is to undertake research on previous theories that have been developed based on the selected research topic. This step will also involve selection of the theoretical approach that will be used in the study. This step will also involve formulation of questions that will be answered in the study, at this point a literature review will be prepared in order to identify previous studies and theories that support the research questions and methods that will used in the study. (Creswell, 2003)

3) Research design:

Research design is determined by the research question, this involves identifying the most appropriate way to structure the quantitative research in order to answer the research question, the research question will also determine the type of data to be collected and analyzed.

4) Data collection methods:

The research design will involve selection of the most appropriate data collection method. Data collection methods include Questionnaires, Structured Interview, and Observation and analyzing documents

i) Questionnaires:

Questionnaires involve the formulation of questions that aid in the collection of data, questionnaires can be administered to respondents or mailed to the respondents, questionnaires are prepared and pre tested to determine whether questions are biased. Questions formulated will be based on the research question whereby they will aid in the collection of data that will help answer the research questions.  Questions will either be closed or open ended, open ended questions are those questions that will require the respondent to input his own answers to the questions whereas closed questions are those questions whereby the respondent will choose from a list of answers highlighted in the questionnaire.  (Fowler, 2008)

ii) Interviews:

An interview can be undertaken to collect data, there are two types of interviews and they include face to face interview and telephone interview, a face to face interview will involve collection of data whereby the respondent and research administrator sit together, a telephone interview on the other hand will involve calling the respondent and answers obtained over the phone, a face to face interview is considered more expensive given that the research administrator may be required to travel and also this process may be time consuming. (Fowler, 2008)

Interview are further subdivided into structured and unstructured interview, structured interview involves setting up a set of questions that will be administered while unstructured involve asking the respondent to elaborate on certain issues.  (Fowler, 2008)

iii) Observation

Observation is another method of collecting data, this method involves observing participants and recording data, for example collecting data on the number of vehicles that use a certain highway will involve the observation method of collecting data. (Fowler, 2008)

iv) Analyzing documents:

This is secondary data collection method that involves collecting data from published documents example journals and a book, other sources include online databases which are relatively cheap methods of obtaining data, this method is preferred given that it is less time consuming and also less costly. This method however have a disadvantage given that it may given rise to accuracy problems, data accuracy will depend on the purpose of the data collected and that there may rise problem when data may unavailable and therefore a researcher will be required to use primary sources of data which include interview and questionnaires. (Fowler, 2008)

When designing the research data collection methods it is important that the researcher takes into consideration the respondent attitude, data collection methods such as questionnaires should be designed taking into consideration the reaction of the respondents when a certain question is directed to them, also the research questions should be clear and simple and should not be leading questions.

The  other factor that should be taken into consideration is the cost, when selecting the data collection method one should take into consideration the cost associated with that method and whether there exist ways to reduce such costs, face to face interview sometimes may be costly and time consuming and therefore questionnaires that are relatively cheap may be preferred, also the questionnaires may be more appropriate given that they are less time consuming given that a lot of data can be collected at once, for example a study that involves participants from different regions and the respondent sends the questionnaires to the respondents. (Fowler, 2008)

5) Sampling:

Sampling in social research refers to the selection of a few respondents from a population, in some studies it is impossible to collect data from the entire population and therefore a sample is selected, when an appropriate sample is selected it results will represent the entire population, a sample reduces the cost associated with data collection and also reduces time consumed while collecting data. There are two types of sampling and they include probability sampling methods and non probability sampling methods.

In probability sampling the sampling error can be estimated and a confidence interval established for the entire population, probability sampling methods include random sampling, systematic sampling, stratified sampling and clustered sampling. (Stuart, 1994)

i) Simple random sampling:

In simple random sampling the population respondents or units are identified and a random number generator is used, each unit in the population is assigned a number and the unit corresponding with the random number generator is included in the sample. The appropriate sample size is calculated using the expected error and therefore the number of total units selected corresponds to the calculated sample size. (Stuart, 1994)

ii) Systematic sampling:

This is a probability sampling method that involves the selection of the sample using intervals, the first step in undertaking a systematic sample is assigning each unit a number, the researcher then decides on the appropriate sample size and then the sample is selected using intervals, example a study may use systematic sample with a ten unit interval, this means that the first number to be selected will be 1, the next 11, the next 21, if the interval is 5 then the first number will be 1 then 6 then 11 etc. (Stuart, 1994)

iii) Stratified sampling:

Stratified sampling is also an acceptable probability sampling method, this method involves subdividing the entire population using certain characteristics example stratifying data into regions or gender, the next step involves undertaking simple random sampling on the categories and selecting the appropriate sample size. (Maxwell, 2005)

iv) Snowball sampling:

Snowball sampling is another sampling method which is a non probability sampling method, this method involves selecting the first respondent and then asking the respondent to refer you to another respondent, a good example where Snowball sampling is used where we have certain units with unique characteristics, example a research study on gay marriages will use these sampling method, or a study on prostitution will involve this sampling method given that the respondents will refer you to people they know who have the same characteristics. (Stuart, 1994)

6) Ethical issues:

In research there are some ethical issues that need to be taken into consideration, this includes confidentiality, cause no harm to respondents, anonymity and consent. A researcher should treat information collected with confidentiality, this means that the researcher should not state that a particular respondents made a certain statement. The other ethical issue to observe is anonymity whereby the respondent should not given out their names or reference numbers that may identify them as the particular individual that gave certain statements. (Punch, 2005)

The other ethical issue is consent. Participants should be briefed on the purpose of the study and also be informed on any recording that may take place, this way the researcher should gain the consent of the participants by briefing them on the purpose of the study and also how the information will be recorded. Finally the research should not cause harm to the individuals, this takes place whereby the researcher should not ask questions that offend the participants. (Fowler, 2008)

7) Data analysis:

When data has been collected the next step is to analyze data using statistical techniques such as calculating the mean, variance, correlation and regression analysis, all the data collected should be analyzed but some exceptions are made for example cases where we have incomplete questionnaires are rejected and not included in the analysis. In this stage the researcher should report accurately the results obtained and should not in any way alter variables collected in achieving desired results. Data should be presented as they are and a report written to show how the data respond to the research question or topic. (Bamberger, 2000)

8) Other factors to consider:

A good research study will be free from bias, this means that the information and data collected from the study should not vary in any systematic way, and bias in a study may be eliminated through the use of random sampling and also eliminating biased treatment of participants that may affect their responses. (Flick, 2006)

Conclusion:

From the above discussion it is evident that when undertaking quantitative research one has to take into consideration a number of factors, the first step is to formulate a research question, the next step involves literature review where a researcher should search for information on previous studies undertaken on the chosen research question. The next step involves research design where the data collection method and the sampling method is chosen, a researcher may chose to use questionnaires, interview or observation to collect data.

Research design also involves choosing an appropriate sampling method when the population is large, sampling methods include random sampling, quota sampling, systematic sampling and stratified sampling. Sampling helps in reducing costs associated with collecting data from the entire population and also is less time consuming whereby the study is undertaken only a few participants.  After sampling and preparation of the data collection method the next step is data analysis and interpretation, this involves recording all the data collected and analyzing data to make statistical inferences and descriptive statistics, results should also report on how the data has helped answer the research question.

References:

Donald Stuart. 1994. Statistics: An introduction. Oxford: Blackwell press.

Floyd Fowler. 2008. Survey research methods. London: Sage Publishers.

John Creswell .2003.Research design: qualitative, quantitative and mixed method approaches. Oxford: Blackwell press.

Joseph Alex Maxwell. 2005. Qualitative and quantitative research design: an interactive approach. Cambridge: Cambridge university press

Keith Punch. 2005. Introduction to social research: quantitative and qualitative approaches. Oxford: Wiley and sons.

Loraine Blaxter, Christina Hughes and Malcolm Tight. 2006. How to research. Cambridge: Cambridge university press

Michael Bamberger .2000. Integrating quantitative and qualitative research. London: Butterworth Heinemann.

Uwe Flick. 2006. An introduction to qualitative research. Oxford: Blackwell press.

Model Dissertation Structure

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Table of Contents 

List of Figures 

List of Tables

Statements and Declaration

Acknowledgements

Abstract

Chapter 1 – Introduction and Overview

1.1: Introduction

1.2: Importance of Topic

1.3: State of the Field

1.4: Field Research Problems

1.5: Dissertation Outline

1.6: Summary 

Chapter 2 – Review of the Literature

Subsections to be determined by topic

Chapter 3 – Research Methodology

3.1: Introduction

3.2: Research Background

3.2.1    Research Hypotheses

3.2.2    Research Questions

32.3     Research Objectives

3.3: Research Design and Research Methodology

3.3  Research Purpose

3.3.1    Exploratory

3.3.2    Descriptive

3.3.3    Explanatory

3.3.4    Prescriptive

3.4: Research Approach

3.4.1    The Deductive versus the Inductive Approach?

3.4.2    The Qualitative versus the Quantitative Approach

3.5: Research Strategy

3.5.1    Qualitative Sampling 

3.5.2    Qualitative Data Collection

3.5.3    Qualitative Data Handling

3.6: Credibility and Quality of Research Findings

3.6.1    Reliability

3.6.2    Validity 

3.6.3    Quality

3.7: Summary

Chapter 4- Results and Discussion

Subsections to be determined by topic

Chapter 5 – Conclusion

5.1: Contributions of the Research

5.2: Implications of the Research

  1. 5.2.1    Implications for Theory
  2. 5.2.2    Implications for xxx
  3. 5.2.3    Implications for Future Research

5.3: Limitations of Study

5.4: Final Conclusion 

References 

Job Satisfaction, Tenure And Age

Running Head: Job Satisfaction, Tenure and Age

Name:

University:

Course:

Date:

Abstract:

The paper highlights some of findings from a journal article by Munevver (2006) on job satisfaction. the study showed that age and experience have a significant impact on job satisfaction and commitment. ANOVA test show that there is a significant difference in job satisfaction level (intrinsic) with reference to tenure, however there is no significant difference in job satisfaction (extrinsic) with reference to age.

Introduction:

This paper discusses the journal article by Munevver (2006) which analyses the difference in job satisfaction, organisation and occupation commitment with reference to gender, position, age, marital status and experience. Both organisation and occupation commitment are subdivided into three categories according to Meyer and Allen (1991) and they include affective, continuance and normative commitment. The following is a Summary of the article and an ANOVA test using AIU data to determine whether there is a significance difference in the level of job satisfaction (extrinsic) with reference to age, and also whether there is a significant difference in the level of job satisfaction (intrinsic) with reference to tenure.

Summary of the article:

Variables:

Variables in the study include job satisfaction, organisation commitment, occupation commitment, position, age, marital status, experience and gender. Organisation commitment according to Buchanan (1974) can be defined as the dedication of an employee to the purposes of an organisation (Munevver, 2006, p.78).

1) Organisation commitment:

Organisation commitment is subdivided into three broad categories and they include:

i) Affective (organisation) commitment:

Shore and Tetric (1991) define affective commitment as the interaction between the employee and the organisation whereby both have similar values, employees will stay in an organisation because they need and want the occupation (Munevver, 2006, p. 78).

ii) Continuance (organisation) commitment:

Meyer (1993) define continuance commitment as the difficulties employee face in case he or she decides to leave an organisation, due to experience gained an employee will find it difficult to leave an organisation due to costs associated and limited alternative available when one leave the organisation(Munevver, 2006, p. 78).

iii) Normative (organisation) commitment:

Meyer (1993) define normative commitment as an obligation felt by an employee about staying in an organisation, the employee will stay in an organisation because he feels that this is the right and ethical thing to do (Munevver, 2006, p. 78).

2) Occupational commitment:

Occupational commitment is the devotion of employees to their occupation according to Morrow (1989). In the case study occupation commitment is subdivided into affective, continuous and normative (Munevver, 2006, p. 78).

i) Affective (occupation) commitment:

This commitment can be defined as the performance of an employee’s role with pleasure and devotion to his or her occupation Meyer (1993).

ii) Continuance (occupation) commitment:

This form of commitment can be defined as the employee investment to his or her occupation. This refers to the cost that may be faced when an individual decides to leave the organisation (Munevver, 2006, p. 80).

iii) Normative (occupation) commitment:

Normative commitment according to (Munevver, 2006) refers to employee feelings toward his or her job, and the individual will feels that it is right and ethical to remain his job (Munevver, 2006, p. 80).

3) Job satisfaction:

Job satisfaction is another variable included in the case study, other studies show that sex affects job satisfaction, and however there are other factors that affect job satisfaction such as marital status whereby married employees tend to have higher job satisfaction than divorced employees (Munevver, 2006, p. 80).

Main findings:

T tests were undertaken to determine the differences in mean values of the variables, ANOVA analysis were also undertaken to determine the differences between job satisfaction, organisation commitment and occupation commitment with reference to age, experience and position.

  • Gender

T test results showed that there were no significance differences in job satisfaction and commitment with reference to gender (Munevver, 2006, p. 83).

  • Marital status

T test results showed that there was a significance differences in continuance (occupation) and normative (occupation) commitment whereby married employees had higher continuance occupation and normative occupation commitment levels. (Munevver, 2006, p. 83).

  • Age

ANOVA test showed that there was a significant difference in affective (occupation), normative (occupation) and continuance (occupation) commitment.

  • Position

ANOVA test showed that there was a significant difference in normative (organisation) and continuance (occupation) commitment.

  • Experience

ANOVA test showed that there was a significant difference in normative (occupation) and continuance (occupation) commitment.

ANOVA test:

This section uses AIU dataset values to determine whether there is a significance difference in the level of job satisfaction (extrinsic) with reference to age, also to test the hypothesis whether there is a significant difference in the level of job satisfaction (intrinsic) with reference to tenure.

Age and Job satisfaction:

The hypothesis to test is whether there is a significant difference in job satisfaction level with reference to age:

Hypothesis:

H0: mean1=mean 2= mean 3

Ha: mean1≠mean 2≠ mean 3

Where mean1, mean 2 and mean 3 are the mean job satisfaction levels for those aged 16 – 21, 22 – 49 and 50 – 65 years respectively.

The table summarises data analysed:

age

job satisfaction(extrinsic)

1

2

3

3.9

4.6

4.4

5.5

5.6

5.5

3.2

6.5

3.4

4.4

3.8

5.6

3.8

6.8

3.7

4.6

6.2

5.5

4.6

4.8

5.5

3.6

6.5

4.7

4.7

sum

43

38.3

40.1

n

10

7

8

mean

4.3

5.471428571

5.0125

From the table job satisfaction (extrinsic) mean value is 4.3 for those aged 16 – 21, 5.4 for those aged 22 – 49 and 5.01 for those aged 50 – 65 years. The table below shows the ANOVA test excel output:

ANOVA: Single Factor

SUMMARY

Groups

Count

Sum

Average

Variance

1

10

43

4.3

0.4511111

2

7

38.3

5.471429

1.2290476

3

8

40.1

5.0125

1.1383929

ANOVA

Source of Variation

SS

df

MS

F

P-value

F crit

Between Groups

5.938564286

2

2.969282

3.3667004

0.053014

3.443357

Within Groups

19.40303571

22

0.881956

Total

25.3416

24

Decision:

The calculated F value is 3.36667 and the F critical value is 3.443357, the f critical value is greater than the critical value and therefore the null hypothesis H0: mean1=mean 2= mean 3 is accepted.

Implications:

These results imply that job satisfaction (extrinsic) does not differ with age, this means that the job satisfaction mean value is equal for all groups given alpha = 0.05, therefore there exist no significant difference in job satisfaction (extrinsic) according to age.

Hypothesis two:

Test whether there is a significant difference in the level of job satisfaction (intrinsic) with reference to tenure.

Hypothesis:

H0: mean4=mean 5= mean 6

Ha: mean4≠mean 5≠ mean 6

Where mean4, mean 5 and mean 6 are the mean job satisfaction (intrinsic) levels for those whose tenure value is less than 2 years, 2 to 5 years and Over 5 Years respectively.

The table summarises data analysed:

tenure

job satisfaction(intrinsic)

1

2

3

3.7

4.2

4.7

4.5

4.3

5.1

4.5

4.5

5.5

5.3

5.2

6.2

5.8

6.2

3.4

6.2

6.4

4.2

5.7

6.5

6.3

3.2

6.6

4.5

6.2

sum

48.6

51.2

29.1

n

9

10

6

mean

5.4

5.12

4.85

From the table job satisfaction (intrinsic) mean value is 5.244, 5.5 and 4.6667 for those for those whose tenure value is less than 2 years, 2 to 5 years and over 5 Years respectively.

The table below shows the ANOVA test excel output:

ANOVA: Single Factor

SUMMARY

Groups

Count

Sum

Average

Variance

1

9

48.6

5.4

0.9575

2

10

51.2

5.12

1.317333

3

6

29.1

4.85

0.971

ANOVA

Source of Variation

SS

df

MS

F

P-value

F crit

Between Groups

1.1106

2

0.5553

0.501276

0.61251

3.443357

Within Groups

24.371

22

1.107773

Total

25.4816

24

Decision:

The calculated F value is 0.501276 and the F critical value is 3.443357, the F calculated value is greater than the critical value and therefore the null hypothesis H0: mean1=mean 2= mean 3 is rejected.

Implications:

These results imply that there exists significant difference in job satisfaction (intrinsic) with reference to tenure.

Conclusion:

From the above discussion job satisfaction and commitment are determined by a number of factors which include age, experience or tenure, gender and position, mean job satisfaction values(intrinsic) show that younger workers have higher job satisfaction (intrinsic) than older workers. ANOVA test on the difference in job satisfaction with reference to tenure show that there is a significant difference at 0.05 level of test; this means that job satisfaction is influenced by the level of experience or tenure.

References:

Buchanan (1974). Building organizational commitment: Science Quarterly. Vol. 19, page 533 to 546.

Meyer (1993). Commitment to organizations and occupations: Applied Psychology Journal. Vol 78, page 538 to 551.

Meyer and Allen (1991). A three component conceptualization of organizational commitment. Human Resource Management Journal. Vol 1, page 61to 98.

Morrow (1989). Work commitment among salaried professionals. Vocational Behaviour Journal. Vol 34, page 40 to 56.

Munevver Cetin (2006) the relationship between job satisfaction, organisation and occupation commitment of academics, the journal of American academy of business, vol 8, (1) pp.78 – 88

Shore and Tetric (1991). A construct validity study of the survey of perceived organizational support’. Applied Psychology Journal, vol 76(5), page 637 to 643.

College essays argumentative topics

Essays writing are a part of every school, college and university that can’t be skipped or escaped from. No matter how bad you are with essay writing, you can’t do anything but to write your essays by hook or crook. However I have seen many students who just keep overlooking or delaying the essay writing process which eventually cost them their academic degrees or least; the grades of their academic courses. Another factor that is mostly overlooked or not given a lot of attention is the essays topics. Essay topics hold a lot of wroth in the field of writing and it’s the very essay topics that make the essays strong enough for the readers to be pursued. One of the best essay types are argumentative essays so I am presenting top drawer argumentative essay topics below that will clear up your confusion about which topic you should go with.

  1. Essays about; should mercy killing be made legal?
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  3. Should sex education be started at a very young age?
  4. Essays about; should gay marriages be legalized?
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  8. Have women found equivalent status in the world which is more often than not termed as a male dominated one?
  9. Essays about; Does making uniforms compulsory in schools have any benefits?
  10. What is the effect of sensationalism of news by the media on the general public?
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  16. Are human beings becoming dependent on technology?
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  18. Should people be given capital punishment for rape? essays.
  19. Has cases of domestic violence decreased in the current century?
  20. Essays about; Should cigarette smoking become illegal like drugs?
  21. What is the purpose of beauty pageants?
  22. Is there a link between the age of couples and their relationship?

Once you select a topic from the above given ones, now the time comes for you to do the research work for your essays which part is definitely one of the most complex ones. For the reason that an argumentative essay is the one that holds all the facts and figures that give weight to the argumentation and logical details, you have to make sure that the data you should collect from any sources of your choice should be precise. Whenever you need to back up your claims with proper support of quotations of proves, you will need to provide the in text citations. In text citations are those necessary elements of an essay that make it believable yet verifiable. After this you are all set to submit your paper.

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